249 Carlisle Indian School students enrolled with affiliation to the "Cheyenne" tribe according to the documents found at NARA, CCHS, in John Sipes' files, and in Barbara Landis' files. For explanation of these cites, go to the Student Information Page. A component of the Ft. Marion prisoner descendants' project including links to Sand Creek Massacre Survivors and the Battle of the Washita Survivors is the development of web pages containing biographical and genealogical information for relatives of the Carlisle students who were sent to the school from the Cheyenne and Arapaho Agency. As a consequence of this project, these pages are being updated daily. Specific materials have been posted here or linked to the Carlisle student name lists and their biographical links. The material is referenced from:
John Sipes Cheyenne CollectionALFREY / SADIE / CHEYENNE / [NARA75DF]
Donald J. Berthrong Collection
Ruby Bushyhead Collection
Oklahoma Historical Society Archives and Manuscripts
Western History Collections, University of Oklahoma
Standing Bird/Medicine Water FamilyOral History Collections Sipes Collection.
|After the 1900s many returned Cheyenne students from Carlisle, Chemava,
Phoenix and other Indian boarding schools and those attending boarding
schools on the Cheyenne and Arapaho old reservation were attempting to
enter public schools in western Oklahoma near their homes.
For some years after 1900 the public schools and white settlers, homesteaders and officials in charge at different public school districts openly refused to allow Indian children to go to white schools.
In March of 1907 Emma Gard, County Superintendent of Schools for Blaine County, Watonga, Oklahoma, wrote Charles E. Shell, Agent at the Cheyenne and Arapaho Agency stating that;
She did not like the idea of Indian children attending public schools with whites. She did not consider it wise since T.B. was so prevalent among the Indians. Another reason was that the school did not draw territorial school money for Indian students. Also that the school at Watonga did allow some Indian students to attend and the attendance was irregular.In April of 1907 W.C. Bickford, Superintendent of Canadian County Schools aired his complaint to the effect of Blaine County that Indian students should pay tuition since they were wards of the government. (this letter never mentioned that when the Cheyenne and Arapaho tribes lost their reservation to the open land run of homeless settlers in 1892 seeking homesteads on the land owned by the tribes that many acres of the reservation were set aside for public schools for the education of students and no where does the treaty agreement stipulate that Indian students could not attend public schools established on lands they gave up for public schools).
In Dec. 1908, R.F.D.3, Calumet, Oklahoma, S.S.T. Lacy, Clerk of Dist. No. 100, wrote Agent Shell at Darlington that as a member of the school board, he felt his duty to inform Shell that there was complaints that Indian children had lice, felt it was powerless to have the children cleaned up, the school was in danger of being broken up because of this, and in the interest of peace and harmony that all the Indian children be removed from the school. He hoped the Agent would take immediate action to this.
In a January 1909 letter again to Shell, Lacy stated that all the Indian students had quit the Calumet school and were going back to the government boarding school. To be sure Lacy was going to the Cheyenne camp and find out.
In Feb. of 1910, Indian children in School Dist. No 103, Watonga, Oklahoma, were cited again in a letter to Agent Freer, from the Additional Farmer for the Watonga area that at various times within the past month complaints have come in to me from the school board and the patrons of school Dist. no. 103 that Indian children were unclean, some still live in tepees and a clean tepee is rare. The most serious complaint was that white school children attending school with Indian children get lice and kindred vermin. This would not be tolerated by the whites.
For the month of October 1911 at the Fonda (Dewey County) area shows
statistics of Cheyenne Indian pupils in public school as name and age to
In 1912 E.B. Reay, Supt. of Public Instruction, Dewey County, wrote Agent West, Cantonment Agency, that white people are sometimes unwilling to have Indian children attend white schools saying they are "lousy" and eat "dead cows" etc.
Finally in Sept. of 1915 a Circular No. 1014, to the Commissioner of the Indian affairs in Washington, from Supt. Dunn at the Red Moon School in Hammon, Okla., stated;
Sir; Regarding placing of indian children in public schools, I wish to state that they are not cleanly enough and the settlers object to even eating at a table with an Indian.Text Copyright (c) 2005 Sipes/Berthrong Cheyenne Coll. Cheyenne Boarding School Files.
|Annual Report of the Commissioner of the Indian Affairs To The Sec.
of the Interior for the year of 1882. (Dept. of the Interior, Office of
the Ind.Affairs, Washington, Oct. 10, 1882). H. Price, Comm. XXXIV.....Too
much importance cannot be attached to the agency industrial boarding-school.
It is the center of Indian civilization, and will be until parents are
willing to send their children away from home to be educated, and the government
is willing to assume the enormous expences of that sort of schooling....
XIV. Indian police was organized in the summer of 1878, in accordance
with an act of Congress approved May 27, 1878. Salary- Officers $15, Sergeants
$12 and Privates $8 per month. Note: Indian Police were sent after runaway
Indian students that became homesick, were subject to harsh treatment for
minor things, or were ill and
-Sipes Cheyenne Boarding School Collection.
|Transporter Supplement, Vol. 2, Darlington, I.T., July 11, 1881, No.
"It is reported that an effort will be made to remove the Indian training school from Carlisle, Pa., to Lawrence, Kansas. The moving of the school will soon be a neccessity, and no better place than Lawrence could be selected. It is within convenient distance of the Territory, and yet far enough removed from the savage influences of camp life. It will be better for the Indians and better for the Govrenment to remove and enlarge the school."
Cheyenne Transporter, Vol. 2, Darlington, I.T., July 25, 1881, No. 23:
Text Copyright (c) 2003 - Cheyenne Newspaper Collections, courtesy of John Sipes, Jr.
|Berthrong Notes. No date but probably 1880 or 1881. From the Cheyenne
Arnold, Neatha, Jesse, Jock, Jaah, Theodore and Lester, Arapahoes; and Stanton, Moore, Fletcher, and Carl, Cheyennes, will start to Carlisle tomorrow where they will apprentice themselves at the most useful trade. These boys are too old to be admitted to the Training School and now go east to serve an apprenticeship the same as white boys do. Mr. J.H. Seger suggested this course, explained the matter to the boys and has made most of the arrangements for their going. The boys pay their own traveling expenses from the sale of cattle or ponies or from money earned from labor and when there will receive no more aid from the Government than they would if they were to remain here.
These young men are already making some money, but they voluntarily relinqish all the pleasures of home and friends and go among strangers, to be absent three years that they may learn a trade that will make them useful men. We have never seen a parallel case among white people, and we doubt whether, everything considered, can be cited that will speak as well for the same number of white boys.
Text Copyright (c) John L. Sipes 2003
|C&A Carlisle School, Pratt to Miles, Aug. 27th, 1881.
Students on vacation with farmers.
Miles; Davis; Darlington; Harvey White Shield; Hayes; Hubbell; Joseph; John Washa; Doty; Chester; Morton; Elkanah; Frank Engler; Clarence; Theodore; Van Horn; Casper; John Williams; Red Hat; Lucy Cheyenne;Minerva; Ada Bent; Matilda; Anna Raven; Minnie Yellow Bear; Leah and Ella Hippy and Steve Williamson.
Text Copyright (c) 2004 John Sipes.
|C&A Carlisle School File, (There is no date on this note)
Entitled to return home: Lydia Big Nose; Jessie Spreadhands; Myra Cedergrove; Clarence Warden. These are anxious to remain longer. Casper Edson; Wm. Fletcher; Arnold Woolworth; Carl Matches; Kias Williams; and Ernie Black also wish to return. Sarah Sitting Bull and Elkanah Dawson (Cheyenne)- father at Pine Ridge.
Text Copyright (c) 2004 John Sipes.
|Rev. S.S. Haury’a Visit to Carlisle.
Rev. S. S. Haury, Missionary at Cantonment, Indian -Territory, who brought in the forty-three Cheyenne and Arapahoe pupils received during the month, entertained a sociable gathering at the house of Mr. Standing very pleasantly by relating incidents of his work, and some little history of the Mennonite Mission at the Cheyenne and Arapahoe Agency.
They have two stations, work at the Agency being confined to the Arapahoes, mainly, while sixty miles out at Cantonment there is a colony of perhaps eighty families of both Cheyennes and Arapahoes. some are doing fairly well at raising crops and improving the land. Their tents and houses are furnished with stoves and tables, plates, nnd knives and forks, and other civilized household equipments, and the women are taught to cook and bake.
Several have cut logs and will put up houses this fall. Little Raren and Left Hand are the principal chiefs at Cantonment. The late chief, Powder Face, who was found dead on the hunting trail was a progressive man. He lives in a house which cost $500. His son Clarence, a recent returned pupil of Carlisle, is in charge of the family and is carrying on the farm work.
Prospects for the future of these progressive Indians,are in Mr. Haury’s opinion, better than he ever expected to see.
Mr. Haury is a man of experience and travel, having been as far north as Silaska, which he considers a more hopeful field for missionary work than our Indian tribes near at hand.
In reply to the question whether there were any rules or regulations for Indians joining the colony at Cantonment to follow: Mr. Haury answered, “Very few, but it was well understood that those Indians who wish to join the colony will not be allowed to ‘throw away' one wife and take another at will, they are to place their children in school; no work is carried on during the Sabbath, and all gambling strictly prohibited.”
Each Indian may cultivate as much land as he wishes. Little Raven has fifty....
“Laziness and Christianity are not compatible,” says Mr. Haury, earnestly.
“Tou can never make a Christian of an indolent mind,” so industrial teaching along with the Gospel truth is what the Indian must have.
In relation to our returned pupils, Mr. Haury gave a very good account of some; others are doing as badly as their surroundings call forth. As an incident he related a story showing the unfair treatment Indians often receive. A policeman and fiather of John Williams, one of Carlisle’s bright boys, had two of his best horses stolen, leaving two poor ponies, with which this spring he managed to cultivate about twenty acres. It was discovered that the ponies had been stolen by white men, and before he got them back, the Indian was out of pocket $150. If an Indian should steal horses from a white man and the party discovered who did the stealing, all the white man would have to do to secure his horses, would be to go and get them.
Mr. Haury Spoke well of the Carlisle work, but had no idea our shops were run on as extensive a scale as they are, or that the amount of real work turned out was so great as results show. He was both pleased and surprised at this feature of our work.
October 1886 THE RED MAN
Cantonment Indian Boarding School
G.D. Williams, Indian Agent, to Commissioner of Indian Affairs, Commissioner
Atkins, August 10, 1887.
During the second day of inspection of Indian houses a number of headmen of the Cheyennes talked with Inspector Gardner about the matter saying that they did not wish any more such men sent among them and that they desired Mr. Haury sent away. They were assured he was about to depart, which he did in a few days thereafter.
These Indians do not entertain the highest sentiment regarding chasity and while I do not believe the unfortunate act within itself would deter them from sending their children to the school, they will use it, as an incontrovertible argument against a mission school under the same patronage and decline to support it. This applies more particularly to the Cheyennes who are largely in the majority at Cantonment and who have no earnest desire for the education of their children.
They grasp every excuse for witholding their children; for two years
past they have given as a reason that the buildings were old, damp and
unhealthful, but as soon as a new building was built they would fill it.
The present "picked" structure at Cantonment will serve another year with some few repairs but a new building is needed and I believe it should be conducted solely by the Government to insure its success. /S/ G.D. Williams.
Text Copyright (c) 2004 Sipes/Berthrong Cheyenne Collections. Boarding
|Board of Indian Commissoners, 13th Annual Report of the Year 1893.
Washington: Government Printing Office.
Cheyenne and Arapaho Agency, Agent John D. Miles Reports:
5,592 Indians; 3,645 are Cheyennes; 1,947 are Arapahoes. Agency has 2 boarding schools. (1) 250 children are in the agency school. (2) 1 child is at Hampton; 2 at Paris Hill, N.Y. and 70 at Carlisle. Total in the states 82. (3) 1,200 children at the agency are of school age. (4) Progress of children in school, good. (5) Progress of children in industrial work and trades, good. (6) Number of apprentices at agency 7; 2 with engineer; 2 with carpenter; 2 with blacksmith; 1 with physician.
( Sipes/Berthrong Cheyenne Coll., Boarding School Files)
Board of Indian Commissioners, 25th Annual Report of the Year 1893.
Washington: Government Printing Office. 1894.
Mr. Meserve, Haskell Institute, Superintendent United States Indian Training School, Kansas.
I spent an afternoon with an Indian agent in Oklahoma. I do not believe, as a rule, in putting the military in control of Indian agencies; but, if they are there and doing good work, it is only just to say so. I spent an afternoon with Capt. Woodson, and I have rarely known an Indian agent who is trying to do so much for the Indians. If a child of five or six came he would ask questions like this: "Are you in school?" "Yes" "Where?" etc.
By and by there came up a family of several. A boy about ten years of age was among them. One could see he was the pet of the family by the way he was decked out with unusual trinkets. "Is that boy in school?" the agent asked. "No sir". "Why not?" "He has not very good sense; his eyes are not straight." "I think you ought send him and give him a trial," said the agent. The Indians reply made one think of the great humorist who was always ready to sacrifice upon his countrys altar his wifes relatives. Said the Indian, "No, I have not sent him to school but I always send my relatives children to school," as though that covered a multitude of sins.
(Sipes/Berthrong Cheyenne Coll., Boarding Schools)
Text Copyright (c) 2004 Sipes/Berthrong Cheyenne Collections, Boarding School Files.
|Edgar A. Allen, Supt., to White, March 21, 1903, notes only has...Ellen
(Berthrong Cheyenne Collection. Carlisle School Section.)
Text Copyright (c) 2004 John Sipes
|The Southern Cheyenne and Arapaho Fair:
By William B. Freer.
THE SECOND annual fair of the Cheyennes and Arapahos of Oklahoma was held at the town of
Watonga about the middle of last September.
That it was a success, notwithstanding a very un-favorable farming season, was generally agreed.
The conditions, other than a year of poor crops and in some sections complete crop failures, were
all that could be wished-a convenient and spa-cious fair ground with plenty of shade, good water, and room to camp; pasturage for the large number of horses and ponies belonging to the Indians; good weather; enthusiastic workers, both Indian and white; good displays of the products of Indian homes and farms, notwithstanding the poor farming season; interesting and wholesome diversions; and large numbers of visitors, insuring sufficient gate receipts to pay liberal premiums and the operating expenses.
Between two thousand and twenty-five hundred Cheyennes and Arapahos attended the fair, most of whom arrived from three days to a week in advance of the opening day and pitched their pictur-esque teepees and less picturesque, as well as less sanitary, wall tents in a double semi-circle about and outside of the half mile race track, the late comers overflowing into a nearby pasture. The neighbor-ing Kiowas and Apaches were well represented and there were indi-vidual visitors from several other tribes. Before and during the fair there was much sociability among the Indian campers, the early morning breakfast party being the most popular sort of gathering.
During the entire encampment no case of drunkenness or disorder on the part of any Indian was observed-rather a remarkable fact and one testifying to the efficiency of the county sheriff and his deputies in keeping out “bootleggers” as well as to the general good sense and sobriety of the Cheyenne and Arapaho people.
The first act was the holding of religious services for and by the Indians on the Sunday evening preceding the fair. These serv-ices were in charge of the missionaries of the field, who invariably lend their presence and active support to the fair and who are helpful generally in all of the enterprises set on foot looking to the lift-ing up of the Indians. The morning meeting was well attended, the sermon in English being interpreted into both the Cheyenne and Arapaho tongues. On the same evening the churches of the town were closed and the Christian people of Watonga joined the Christian Indians in a union meeting at which hymns in the Indian tongues were sung and addresses were made by a number of the leading Christian Indians. The remarks of the Cheyennes were interpreted into Arapaho and English, while the Arapaho addresses were translated into English and Cheyenne.
The occasion of the second general gathering at the fair was the delivery of a lecture on some of the educational phase of tubercu-losis and trachoma by Dr. Joseph A. Murphy, Medical Supervisor of the United States Indian Service. The address, which was given upon the grand stand, was illustrated by more than a hundred fine stereopticon views and was listened to by perhaps five hundred Indians, who were shown pictures of well- and ill-kept Indian homes, photographs of Indians well and Indians sick, views of vari-ous sanitary arrangements and improper arrangements, magnified pictures of the very dangerous house fly and of different sorts of germs, etc. The pitiable ignorance of the older Indians is shown by the comment of an aged Cheyenne the following morning, to the effect that the Cheyennes have enough sickness among their own people without having brought to them pictures of sick persons of other tribes! The younger people-those who have had the benefit of some education in English-were much impressed by the lecture.
That the teaching of sanitation to the people of the tribe does bring encouraging results was made plain to those visitors who passed among and viewed the Indian teepees and tents. As a rule, the surrounding premises were kept clean and neat. In many places, boxes were in use to contain the camp refuse and these were emptied daily. Since the public drinking cup was not allowed on the grounds, every person or family group had separate cups.
Paper drinking cups were offered for sale at one cent each .and tin cups at three cents. While these things were prearranged by the managers of the fair, the Indians themselves are worthy of much praise for the general cleanliness which prevailed. Upon this feature of the camp, a veteran editor said in his paper (The Watonga Republican) :
There is one conspicuous thing about the tents in the Indian camp and that is the general cleanliness to be seen, In most of them carpets or cloths are spread upon the ground and the hangings are all clean and neat. In many
of the tents can be seen cots and in some cases beds with white spreads. The writer could not help but contrast the appearance inside of those tents with the interior of the teepees which he used to see in the old Indian Territory thirty years ago. A great change has taken place. What brought it about ? Look at it from whatever point of view you may, and you must admit that the teachings of the Christian religion are the potent factors in bringing about this change.
The Christian religion is the greatest .cleanser and civilizer that the world has ever known.
Tuesday, the opening day of the exhibition, was a perfect Okla-homa summer day-a little warm for the visitors from the North, but all that the residents-both Indians and whites-could wish. At nine o'clock, the chiefs and head men, a gorgeous company, dressed in magnificent buckskin suits and war bonnets and mounted on prancing ponies, issued forth to parade the streets of the town, a mile distant, according to program. Many of these apparent bar-barians had entered at the fair exhibits of live stock and farm and garden produce of their own raising and proudly wore the exhibitors badge of distinction. The parade returned, the merry-go-round began its dizzy whirl, the refreshment vendors shouted their wares, the program of sports commenced, and the fair was properly opened. One might visit the snake show, if he possessed sufficient curiosity and a dime, or view the Wild West entertainment, which, even in the wild West, never fails to attract, or patronize the indis-pensable refreshment stands, where bottled “strawberry” soda water and cones of ice cream were in large demand; nowhere on the grounds could one find any of the games of chance or gambling devices which are usually found at fairs and which appeal strongly to he gambling instinct inherent in all of the dark-skinned people of the earth. At this year's fair, native games and contests filled a large part of the program of sports and proved more interesting to the spectators than the baseball, basket ball, and modern field games of the previous year. Among the former were the horn-dart-throwing game and Indian lacrosse, both played by the women, and archery, arrow throwing, and “throwing the shield” by the men. These sports took place in view of the spectators in the grand stand in the mornings, while the afternoons were given over to the sham battle, a very realistic representation of Indian warfare; and, follow-ing this, to the horse and pony races, including among others, an ex-citing relay race, in which the mounted contestants were required to change both steeds and saddles twice during the course. The Indians themselves largely organized, and altogether carried out, these games and sports, including the sham battle and the horse races, and in a most creditable manner.
On the second and third evenings of the fair a representation of primitive Indian life was given for the benefit of large numbers of spectators. The scenes portrayed the camp life of the olden time, showing children at play, the reception and entertainment of visitors arriving with travois from a distance, a council of chiefs, and most picturesque Indian dancing, ‘including the staff dance of the Arapahos and the wild shield dance of the Cheyennes. These representations were simply given in the open air in the light of camp fires and met with popular favor.
The well-filled exhibit hall, newly whitewashed and hung with festoons of red and white bunting, was clean, spacious, and restful. On either side of the broad central ‘passage were booths-one fitted up as a rest room for women, and another as an information bureau and public telephone station; two contained exhibits of camp cook-ing and sewing; three were filled with specimens of classroom work from the Cheyenne and Arapahoe schools of the four superintendencies represented at the fair; five booths contained interesting and artistic exhibits of Indian buckskin and bead work, and six were filled with displays of farm and garden products. Of the latter,
there were three hundred and ninety-five separate exhibits made by one hundred and twenty-five different Indians, At this fair there was a decided increase in the number of farm and garden exhibits over the number shown at the fair of the previous year, notwith-standing the terrible drought of May and June. While at the first fair many exhibits were fragmentary, at the Watonga fair the exhibits were complete and unbroken. The following list will show the
number of exhibits of the different sorts of produce at the first and second fairs :
Fair 1911. Fair 1910.
Yellow corn, - - - - - - - - 68 35
White corn, - - - - - - - - 58 67
Bloody Butcher corn, - - - - - 49 32
Squaw corn, - - - - - - - - 33 16
Milo maize, - - - - - - - - 9 11
Sorghum in heads, - - - - - - 15 11
Watermelons, - - - - - - - - 21 3
Kaffir cam, - - - - - - - - 77 43
Cotton stalks, - - - - - - - - 10 2
Onions, _ _ - - _ _ _ _ _ 3 8
Irish potatoes, - - - - - - - - 5 5
Sweet potatoes, - - - - - - - 6 7
Oats, _ _ _ _ - _ _ _ _ _ 3 7
Wheat, _ _ _ - - _ _ _ - _ 5 ’ 4
Miscellaneous, - - - - - - - 33 78
Total, .- - - - - - - - 395 329
The names of some of the prize winners follow: Little Rock, Cut Finger, Coyote, Blind Bull, Little Bird, Howling Hawk, Howling Crow, Philip Rabbit, Tobacco, Edward Yellow Calf, John Bull, Doty Lumpmouth, Bird White Bear, Benjamin Spotted Wolf, Short Nose, Charley Whiteman, Peter Bird Chief, Mark Tall, Black White Man, Victor Bushy Head, White Thunder, White Buffalo, James Paints Yellow, and DeForest Antelope. Many of these Indians received several prizes.
The exhibits of cooking and sewing, while not numerous, were of excellent quality. There were sixty entries of preserved fruits and jellies and a dozen or more of bread and cake. Of needle-work there were about twenty-five specimens. Prizes were awarded for the best modern house dress made in camp, the best kitchen apron made in camp, the best gingham dress for a child made in camp, the best display of button holes, the best display of laundering, the best batch of Indian bread, the best white bread made in camp, the best pound of butter, the best pound of lard, the best glass of wild plum jelly, the best watermelon preserves, etc. This list merely indicates the scope of the competition among the housewives. The exhibits of native Indian handiwork were especially fine.
They numbered two hundred and twenty articles presented by eighty families. The display of old Indian tools and utensils, some of the articles more than a hundred years old, proved of great interest to visitors of both races.
When it is remembered that many of the Indians came to the fair from a long distance, traveling by wagon, it is noteworthy that one hundred and eighty-six entries were made in the live stock and poultry department. The stock exhibited was very good and was principally of the Indians’ own raising. Much of the poultry would have taken prizes anywhere. In this department prizes aggregating $235 were offered for the best conditioned team, harness,
and wagon, the best team of horses, the best team of mules, the best brood mare and foal, the best colt under one year raised by an Indian, the best colt under two years and over one year raised by an Indian, the best bull, the best cow giving milk, the best calf raised by an Indian, the best steer raised by an Indian, the best heifer raised by an Indian, the best boar, the best shipping hog, the best pen of pigs raised by an Indian, and for the best pens of several varieties of chickens, turkeys, geese, and ducks.
The total amount of the cash premiums offered by the manage-ment was about $700, which does not include the prizes given to the winners of athletic contests and horse races, nor to the winners of the contests in neatness. The latter were for the best kept teepee in camp, the best kept tent, the most neatly dressed man, the most neatly dressed woman, and the most neatly dressed family, of four or more. An Indian baby show brought out many of
the young mothers of the tribe with their brown skinned babies, rather more sedate but no less delightful, than infants of the white race. First, second, third, and fourth prizes were also offered for the prettiest baby, the best behaved baby, the fattest baby under one year, and the cleanest and most neatly dressed baby.
The fair is conducted by an executive committee composed of seven members, namely, the four superintendents of the Cheyenne and Arapaho field, and a president, a vice-president, and a secretary, the last three officers being Indians chosen by vote of the tribe. One of the principal ideas in the organization and conduct of the fair is to school the Indians in its management so that they may soon bear the chief burden and responsibility of the work. They already take a large part in the preliminary consultations which are necessary to place on foot so considerable an enterprise, in the subsequent arrangement of the program, and in the actual work of installing the exhibits, carrying out the schedule of events, and run-ning the fair generally.
The fair has attracted the attention not only of the people of this section of Oklahoma, but of many persons from other States as well. There came purposely to see the fair visitors from Texas, Kansas, Arkansas, Nebraska, Missouri, Minnesota, and New York, and probably from other States as well. On the second day there were fully eight thousand persons in attendance, including the Indians, and even with so great a throng as this expressions of the great-est satisfaction only were heard from visitors and Indians alike.
Referring to the excellent order which prevailed throughout the fair, the St. Louis Post-Dispatch makes the following comment :
Persons who doubt the possibility of enforcing prohibition in Oklahoma could have found something at this fair to think about. Prohibition was enforced. The city officials of Watonga, the sheriff of Blaine county, Government
officials, and the Indians themselves joined hands in keeping a lookout for “bootleggers.” There was no drunkenness and no disturbance. The purpose of the fair is two-fold, as stated by the correspon-dent
of the Oklahoma City Times: “First, to show that prevailing opinions of the red man are as unjust as they are groundless; and second to stimulate within the Indian's breast such ambitions as will render him more and more efficient from an economic standpoint.” The first fair was held last year at Weatherford, and no sooner had the spring crop season opened than its beneficial results began to be apparent. The Indians went at their farm work earlier than usual; they planted a larger acreage of crops than before; they worked better; they set larger gardens and planted more potatoes than formerly; more attention was paid to the raising of poultry and pigs, and better care was taken of the cattle and horses. Early in the spring the people began to talk about and make plans for the next fair. Even in the face of the continued drought, they did not give away to discouragement.
We believe that the fair is successful in its two-fold purpose, and in spite of the magnitude of the task of organizing and conducting it successfully, I do not know of an Indian, or of an employee of the Government in this field, or of a missionary, who would will-ingly give it up.
February 1912 RED MAN
|Cheyenne and Arapaho Delegation regarding Black Hills Claims.|
|Dept. of the Interior, Office of Indian affairs, Washington, April
Circular No. 891
Deaf, dumb, and blind Indian children.
To All Superintendents and Field Officers:
The Indian Appropriation Act, approved August 1, 1914 (Public No. 160, Sixty-third Congress), contains a provision----
" For support of Indian day and industrial schools not otherwise provided for and for other educational and industrial purposes in connection therewith, including for the support and education of deaf and dumb and blind Indian children not to exceed $40,000, $1,550,000."
Attention was called to submit promptly a list of all deaf, dumb, and blind Indian children in each jurisdiction of all superintendents. Give all essential data, including age, degree of blood, physical condition, and indicate which ones are in need of such oppurtunity as the act contemplates. Report also what institutions are available and suitable for support and education of these Indians, with charges and rates of institutions.
/S/ Cato Sells, Commissioner
Text Copyright (c) 2004 Sipe/Berthrong Cheyenne and Arapaho Collections.
Land Allotment Files.
"I would like to add that the city of Clinton, Oklahoma, was established on several Cheyenne Indian allotments which several businessmen went to Washington and convinced politicians there to get these allotments by executive order. When all else failed to get the Cheyennes to sell and several were minors they were appointed guardians and then the fraud of taking the allotments happened and Clinton, Oklahoma, was established on this unethical and stealing of these allotments.
I wrote on this several times already.
The names of four Cheyenne allotments which the city was built on were Darwin Hayes, a minor and had attended Carlisle; Red Plume; No-wa-hy/Cora Prairie Chief, grand daug. of Grey Beard; Ella Butts, who had attended Carlisle; and several other surrounding allotments were involved by the land thieves of Custer County and at one point the United States Attorney had to step in but no one was held accountable for any of this fraud.
I would like the city of Clinton, Oklahoma, to be highlighted if possible.
Darwin Hayes was a half-brother to Squint Eyes a POW.
Heres a bit of my own dealings with Clinton, Oklahoma, and I was born and raised there. When I first started writing back in the middle 1980s the city of Clinton had a Cheyenne and Arapaho Days Celebration of the pioneer settlers and homesteaders. Big write ups were in the local paper. So I wrote of my great grandfather, Standing Bird, being a farmer and settler shortly after allotment of 1892 five miles northeast of Clinton and being cited by the Indian Agent in 1897 for having cotton and corn which were two the finest crops in the county that year.
I took my story to the local newspaper and explained I wrote the story for the celebration and it was read by the editor and I stood there waiting for a answer. He finished and he told me my style of writing was not what they published. My mother happened to be a member of a local retired business womens club and she was furious. She went to their meeting that very day and took my story and read it to the members, which were about nine members present. All little old ladies and retired and even called their club, The Happy House Wives, and they all marched on the newspaper office that very afternoon.
They got my story printed and on the first page and I never asked what they said or demanded. So goes the attitude of Cheyenne Indians in western Oklahoma by the general public."
Copyright (c) 2004 John Sipes. Private email 11/29/04.
|The following names of some main rivers that played a vital part in
the Red River War found in the book, Our Wild Indians, by
Dodge on page 230, are fairly accurate.
This will be the English name, Cheyenne name and translation of the streams or rivers.
Kansas River - Mi-on-i-on - Bluff; Cimarron River - Ho-to-oa-oa - Buffalo, (AKA Many Pipe Dance River , Sipes Coll.); Arkansas River - Mit-sun - Big, (AKA Flint Arrow Point River , Sipes Coll.); North Fork - Hon-ne-o - Wolf River; Canadian River - Mia-om - Red Water River; Washita River - O-ke-a-a - Lodge Pole River; Red River - Ma-ka-mis-sa-va - Big Sand River, (AKA Big Red River, Sipes Coll.); Rio Grande River - Wo-po-mots - Salt River; Missouri River - Tsis-ta-to-e-o - Steamboat River.
Copyright (c) 2004 John Sipes. Private email 11/29/04.
|C&A Letterbooks, Vol. 20:39-47.
G.D. Williams to J.D.C. Atkins, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, March 31, 1887.
Reponsive to Office letter of 18th. ult. I have the honor to submit the following answers.
1st. Carlisle School - Males 120 - Females 60.
Hampton School - None.
Lincoln Institute - 3 Females.
Whole number sent 183.
2nd. Males 74; Females 35; Whole number returned 109.
Died 25; Returned to other schools 33.
Now on reserve 76, of which are 55 males and 21 females.
3rd. Males - Engaged in Farming 8; Enlisted as Scouts 12; Employees at Agency 3; In Traders Stores 1; Returned to blanket life 31. Total 55.
Females - Lawfully Married and on farms 3; Adherents to civilized garb 3; Returned to blanket life 15. Total 21.
4th.Cause of retrogression.
Not enough suitable employment at the agency. Eastern pupils seem adverse to the toil of the farm; nearly all the returned boys have at some time skipped as I am informed made application to work in the office or Commissary. Their mode of living at the eastern schools compared to that of their parents to whom they returned is so widely different that it has a most disturbing influence which in a very short time results in a return to the old life.
5th. The graduates of the eastern schools do not favorably compare in ability or desire for self support with those of the reservation schools. At least at this agency the graduates from schools aboard have gradually dropped out of the agency shops until there is but one remaining at work.
6th. I consider it preferable to educate the Indian youths in the reservation schools, among their people, that the latter may note the gradual evolution of their offspring. Bright or especially promising children desireing higher education than offered there could be sent abroad as now. the broken tongue in reservation schools are considered sufficient to prepare an Indian for a farmer or ordinary mechanic.
It is a well known fact that but comparatively little difficulty is experienced in getting the young men who have been educated on the reservarion to select and settle upon a tract of land and go to work.
There should be a purely industrial school for trades for the graduates of the reservation schools. /S/ G.D. Williams
Text Copyright (c) 2004 Sipes/Berthrong Cheyenne Collections. Boarding
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