Some of the Names
. . . with introduction by Barbara Landis.
In 1995, I met Genevieve Bell at a museum exhibit gallery in
PA. I was astonished to hear her explain that her computer housed the
database of the Carlisle Indian School student files of the National
Record Group 75. She had all the names.
We have, since our first meeting, shared those names. Among them -
Family names, the Christian names, the Indian names, the Married names
and our own Terms of Endearment. For us, the name "Nellie" can be only
one Nellie although there were dozens of Nellie's at the Carlisle
The Nellie we know best is that girl who took a trip
to the moon in 1890. It was that Nellie who came to
as a student, graduated in the second class (1890), went on to
returned to Carlisle as teacher and then matron, and was one of the
people on campus when it closed in 1918. It was that Nellie who
donated the school publications to the State Museum of Pennsylvania in
order that a most complete collection of publications survives today.
One passion Genevieve and I share is to get the names to the nations
to whom they belong. That passion brings with it distractions, as with
each name comes not one story but a web of stories connecting child to
family and family to clan and clan to nation. So - we make promises to
send names to nations - and - we get around to it . . . eventually. In
the meantime, what follows are some of the distractions borne out of
research requests Genevieve and I have gotten as a consequence of this
amazing medium that has brought so many Carlisle descendants to our
We wanted to acquaint you with some of the names we have found -
famous, some not-so-famous.
Chauncey Yellow Robe, student and staff at CIIS.
He was unquestionably one of Pratt's favorite students - having come
to the Carlisle Indian School speaking no English in November
One of the graduates of the class of 1895, the boy who came with the
translated from Lakota: "Kills In Timber" went on to star in the first
Native American-casted silent movie, The Silent Enemy.
Robe wrote, "At the age of 15, I was taken away to the far east to
by big general RH Pratt, wearing my full Indian costume, long hair,
face, feathers, mocassins and blanket and not knowing a word of
Yet in a few years I was able to pass from the silent walls of the
house as an independent American citizen. To educate the Indians
is not a disgrace to American civilization." Some of the many newspaper
references are featured at this link.
Charles Eastman, Physician. Staff at CIIS
Eastman and his wife, Elaine Goodale Eastman lived and worked at the
school from 1899-1900. References to
time in Carlisle are gleaned from the school newspapers from the time
their marriage in 1891 through Eastman's stint as YMCA camp director in
Maryland in 1914. Charles Eastman, Sioux, was the physician who
to the wounded during the massacre at Wounded Knee in 1890.
Chief Joseph (Nez Perce) and Gen. Oliver Otis
These two old adversaries
at Carlisle during the Commencement exercises of 1904, shared lunch and
gave speeches. The text of those speeches was reported here,
in the RED MAN.
assacre at Wounded Knee in 1890.
was an exemplary student with a distinguished
academic career at Carlisle. He went on to become the famous
Chief Buffalo Child Long Lance, his career peaking with the publication
of his autobiography of that name. Long was cast in the hero's
in the movie The Silent Enemy, opposite Chauncey Yellow
His life is chronicled in Donald Smith's,
AT THE CHOCOLATE
What do an Aleut Indian from
a Mohican from Wisconsin, an Oneida from Canada, two Eastern Cherokees
from North Carolina, a Wyandot from Michigan, a Mohawk from New York, a
Nez Perce from Idaho, a Chippewa from Minnesota, and a young Caddo man
from Texas, all have in common? In 1908, they worked at the
Hershey Chocolate Factory!
THE MOVIE STARS
Some Carlisle students eventually made their way to Hollywood and
film careers. Their brief bios are among those listed in A Golden
Native Americans from the Silent Era. Jim Thorpe, Isaac Johnnyjohn,
William Malcolm Hazlett, Lillian "Red Wing" St. Cyr, Luther Standing
and Richard Davis Thunderbird worked in films after leaving the
Indian School. Thank you, Grace Slaughter, for sharing this
There were several students identified as coming to Carlisle from the
Tribe, among them Robert and Estelle Tahamont. The
Tahamont's at Carlisle page gives a broad idea of the types of
found in the Indian school newspapers as well as what type of
is found at the National Archives. There are dozens of newspaper
for Robert Tahamont, and only one found for Estelle, yet the volume of
information found at NARA is fairly comprehensive.
LAURA AND ETADLEUH
Theirs was the first wedding at Carlisle. Etadleuh Doanmoe (Kiowa) was
one of the Ft. Marion prisoners who helped Pratt set up the new school
in the Cumberland Valley. Instrumental to the success of the first
Program", Etadleuh served as the model Indian for Pratt's first
patrons (See Adams'
"Education for Extinction: American Indians and
the Boarding School Experience, 1875-1928"
, p. 156). Laura Toneadlemah
(Kiowa) married Etadleuh and their son, Richard, was born at the
In THE MORNING STAR is a newspaper account of their wedding. Etadleuh
away after only a few years of marriage. His widow, Laura, was a
visitor and correspondent to the school throughout the years.
LOUISE KINNEY (KLAMATH) AND CHARLES HOLSTEIN (CHIPPEWA)
"Mr. and Mrs. Charles Holstein, who were married at the bride’s home in
California last April, visited Carlisle for a few days in August. Mrs.
Holstein was formerly Miss Louise Kinney, one of the brightest
of class ‘10. Mr. Holstein is an ex-student of Carlisle and is a young
man of good character and ability, who promises to do well for himself
and his worthy bride. Mr. and Mrs. Holstein are, at present writing at
White Earth, Minn." Sept 4, 1914 ARROW
JOSEPH F. ADAMS
Was memorialized in Dickinson College's 1900 yearbook, Microcosm.
college classmates wrote: "We cannot speak too highly of the noble
character of our departed classmate. He was true to every trust,
and greatly beloved by all who knew him. He died in the noble
to free his people from bondage." Joseph's story comes to us
the pages of the weekly newspapers
published at the Carlisle Indian School:
Lista Wahoo (E. Cherokee) and Joseph Twin (Winnebago). To quote
"They eloped, he spirited her away...in a car in the middle of the
More may be found in Bell's dissertation.
LISTA AND JOSEPH
CLARENCE AND JENNY
Clarence Three Stars (Sioux) [Indian name: "Packs the Dog"] worked with
Luther Standing Bear at Wanamaker's store in Philadelphia, then ran
married Jenny Dubray, taught at the Pine Ridge Indian School 1910, and
by 1913 was living in Martin SD working as state's attorney for Bennett
County. Jenny DuBray (Sioux) had come to Carlisle from Rosebud at age
spent lots of time on Outing (one stint at Seaside in New Jersey). In
she was married to Three Stars living in Pine Ridge, working for Indian
JULIA AND FRED
From Osage territory came Fred Lookout, son of "Wahtsaketo" and Julia
daughter of "Pah e Hun Kah". These children arrived together in the
of 1881 and left the school together in June of 1884. Julia's sister,
was among the party of Osage students to be educated East. Julia worked
Out with a Miss Edge from 1882-1883, whereas Fred only lasted a month
his Outing home. In follow-up surveys tracking these former students
by 1911 were married, Pratt wrote of Julia . . ."alright, but a
The couple lived in Pawhuska OK, where they owned land and stock. Fred
was a member of the Osage Council from 1908-1910, and also became
chief of his tribe.
ANGEL AND LONE STAR
||Angel DeCora (Winnebago) was hired to develop the Native Arts
program at Carlisle in 1906. She had spotted Lone Star Dietz (Sioux) at
an exhibition where he and his fellow Haskell student sculptors were
a work of art, so she hired him as her assistant at Carlisle. They
, married, raised a pack of Russian wolfhounds, lived
at Carlisle, designed the artwork for the monthly Indian School
... he got caught up in the great football scene and also worked as
coach to Pop Warner. They were commissioned to illustrate a book
by Elaine Goodale Eastman, wife of Charles Eastman, the Sioux physician
who ministered to the wounded at Wounded Knee. Angel also had
Francis LaFlesche's THE MIDDLE FIVE, and Zitkala
Sa's OLD INDIAN LEGENDS. After the decline of the Carlisle school
the Senate investigation of 1914, Lone Star left to coach Washington
and Angel followed but art pursuits in the East continued to beckon. So
she returned to Carlisle where she maintained residence although no
connected to the school, divorcing Lone Star. Angel Decora was stricken
during the great flu epidemic of the 1920's.
<---- 1904 magazine cover designed by Lone Star.
(click on this
to find out more about her)
GERTRUDE AND THOMAS
Famous Sioux writer Gertrude Simmons (later Bonnin) aka Zitkala
Sa came to Carlisle, taught, fell for Thomas Marshall (Sioux), who
was a Dickinson College student in charge of the students living in the
little boys dorm of the Carlisle School. She lost favor with Pratt, was
courted by the New England literary set, left Carlisle and wrote some
for Harper's Weekly, and finally - headed back to the rez to record the
stories of the elders before they would be forever lost.
more extensive biographical work about Zitkala
Sa, including transcripts of some of her stories can be found at The
online archive of 19th Century Women Writers page, edited by Glynis
Thomas Marshall was stricken with measles and passed away Feb
His is the large marker in the middle of Indian cemetery at Carlisle,
under the weeping cherry tree.
GERTRUDE AND CARLOS
Famous Sioux writer Gertrude Simmons (later Bonnin) aka Zitkala
Sa cameto Carlisle, taught, left to pursue music and writing, was
the passing of her fiancee, Thomas Marshall, when she fell for Carlos
the Apache doctor who once worked as the Carlisle School physician and
whotraveled with the 1899 football team (might be when he and she met).
They became engaged and carried on their affair via letters, copies of
which are in the microfilmed papers of Montezuma. She lost his heirloom
ring, he wanted it back, Pratt called her a "pagan" -she affectionately
closed her letters with "your little pagan" to Montezuma who lost
with this woman who was nothing but trouble and who lacked respect for
his revered mentor, Pratt. The letters are full of affection, fun and
- a great read. Needless to say the courtship did not survive the tests
of distance and philosophical differences, but there were tender
correspondences years later after she was married to Mr. Bonnin,
sending her only son to boarding school, and working with Montezuma to
keep the Society of American Indians alive after they both had spent
organizing and supporting that organization.
WILLIAM AND MARY
William Paisano (Laguna Pueblo) married Mary Perry (Laguna Pueblo).
became the Governor at Laguna. He was a storekeeper, had siblings at
became the postmaster at Laguna. Previously schooled at Haskell.
lots in his NARA file. A sister, Mary/May Paisano is buried in Indian
Descendants of the Paisano couple still live at Laguna.
(Note: the email links on the California list page shown in the heading
above, are both outdated and won't work for Landis and/or Bell.)
Here are some biographical
abstracts of some of the Indians who came from the various
and agencies in California. The archival source of many of the
are found at the Cumberland County Historical Society in
Special thanks to Russ Imrie for posting the list of California
many years ago - when Vieve and I first started.
(more to come)..............