In an effort to compile as complete a listing possible for
who were enrolled at the Carlisle Indian Industrial School,
and Genevieve Bell are collaborating in their research work.
spent nine months at the National Archives (NARA) developing a
of the student folders in Record Group 75, File 1327. Landis
taken the names found in the weekly/monthly publications,
and census records, and refined them for inclusion with Bell's
The list is organized by nation.
Learning finger songs at Carlisle Indian School ca 1900
Frances Benjamin Johnston photo
May not be reproduced without permission.
Landis and Bell recommend the following sources for those
in learning more about the Carlisle Indian School, the dozens of
boarding schools modeled after Carlisle, and the assimilationist
of the late-19th / early 20th Centuries. Comments are the
of Landis and/or Bell.
CARLISE INDIAN INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL NEWSPAPERS
What follows is a list of the newspapers published by the United
Indian School, Carlisle, Pennsylvania. These primary sources
highly propagandistic. They were written by Indian School
as part of their Printing Training, under the heavy editorial eye
school administrators, especially the founding father, Richard
whose tenure at Carlisle covered the period from 1879 until his
in 1904. Each issue of the monthly magazines espoused some
article pertaining to the merits of assimilation and/or
The weeklies typically held news items for events at the school
students who participated. Also included in these was news
students chronicling their lives as reported in their letters back
old Carlisle." As you will see below, the names of these
frequently and tracking this is somewhat confusing:
EADLE KEATAH TOH,
April 1880 - March 1882. Published monthly.
to RED MAN and RED
MAN & HELPER.
June 1880 - May 1883. Published monthly.
THE MORNING STAR, April
1882 - December
1887. Published monthly.
THE RED MAN, January 1888 -
THE CARLISLE INDIAN BOYS' & GIRLS'
1885 (July 31 & August 7). Published weekly every
THE INDIAN HELPER,
1885 - 1900. Published weekly every Friday.
THE RED MAN AND HELPER,
weekly every Friday.
THE ARROW, August 25, 1904
- June 19,
1908. Published weekly.
THE CARLISLE ARROW,
1908 - 1918. Published weekly. Name changed toTHE
CARLISLE ARROW AND RED MAN in
THE INDIAN CRAFTSMAN, February
- January 1910. Monthly magazine. Name changed to THE
RED MAN in 1910.
THE RED MAN, February 1910
- June 1917.
CARLISLE INDIAN SCHOOL HEARINGS BEFORE THE
OF THE CONGRESS OF THE UNITED STATES SIXTY-THIRD CONGRESS
TO INVESTIGATE INDIAN
6, 7, 8 AND MARCH 25, 1914: PART II.
Government Printing Office. 1914. Amidst allegations of lax
immorality, illegal sports recruiting and waning public
support for the
off-reservation government boarding school policies, a hearing
to explore the abuses at the Carlisle School. Giving
Angel DeCora Dietz, the Winnebago artist hired to establish
Arts and Crafts Program. Also testifying were Gus Welch,
who helped to initiate the proceedings by petitioning the
Congress to look
into the Carlisle situation.Copies
are difficult to find. Suggested venues:
Duke University, the Cumberland County Historical
Society, the Wisconsin
State Historical Society, and the 42nd St. Library in
New York City.
LARNER, JOHN W. ED. THE PAPERS OF
M.D. Available on microfilm from Scholarly
Inc. Carlos Montezuma was an active participant in the
of the Carlisle School from his early years as a medical
student at the
Chicago Medical College, serving as school physician for a
in the mid-1890's and as a supporter during his time as one of
of the Society for American Indians. Included are his
fiancé Zitkala Sa, aka Gertrude Simmons Bonnin, and a
letter from William Thompson, the first football coach at the
LARNER, JOHN W. ED. THE PAPERS OF THE
AMERICAN INDIANS, 1906-1946. Available on
Scholarly Resources, Inc. All of the correspondence
the formation of this pan-tribal organization advocating
REEL, ESTELLE. COURSE OF STUDY FOR THE
OF THE UNITED STATES: INDUSTRIAL AND LITERARY. Washington:
Printing Office. 1901. Reel was the
of Indian Education at the turn of the century. This is
guide for all government boarding schools.