Peter Eastman / Sisseton Sioux
NARA Record Group 75, File 1327, Folder 5542
Blood quantum: 3/4
Parents: David Eastman, father (full). Emma, mother (1/2)
Date of birth: 9/3/1893
Date of arrival: 10/13/1911
Date of departure: 5/14/1913 - graduated class of 1913.
Age at arrival: 18
Reenrolled 10/8/1913 and departed 4/8/1914.
Height - 71" Weight - 141 lbs. Had been at Flandreau, had one
sister at Carlisle. 
In 1914 had married Germaine Renville in September.

Cornelia Eastman / Sisseton Sioux
NARA Record Group 75, File 1327, Folder 2173
Parents: David Eastman, father (full). Emma, mother (1/2)
Date of arrival: 9/6/1912
Date of departure 10/19/1915 
Age at arrival: 16
Height - 65", Weight - 103 lbs
Previously at Mission school and at Flandreau from 1909-1912.
Had been on one Outing.
Reenrolled 10/8/1916 and stayed untill 8/31/1918 and when school
closed was sent on Outing.
Francis Eastman / Sisseton Sioux
NARA Record Group 75, File 1327, Folder 5481
Parents: David Eastman, father (full). Emma, mother (1/2)
Date of birth: 4/3/1891
Date of arrival: 10/30/1911
Date of departure 6/16/1913 - graduated class of '13
(reenrolled - see below)
Age at arrival: 20 years old
Height 66", weight 126 lbs at arrival.  Previously schooled at
Flandreau 1899-1911, Had 5 brothers and 3 sisters living and 2
brothers, 2 sisters deceased.  Re-enrolled 10/8/1913 and departed 
8/12/1916.  Attended Conway Hall in 1913.  From 1915-16 worked in
Ford Factory in Detroit.


Jun 26, 1891 INDIAN HELPER

The marriage of Dr. Eastman, Government Physician at Pine Ridge Agency, Dak., to Miss Goodale, the accomplished young lady Superintendent of Indian Schools of Dakota, poet and writer, occurred a few days since in the city of  New York.
Dr. Eastman from accounts is an Indian of excellent education and attainment. Now, the Man-on-the-baud-stand has a little question or two to ask, that’s all : What made Dr. Eastman the man he is? Was it the reservation system of Indian education ? Or, was it the opportunity to get out and awav from the reservation? Now- Why is not the medicine that is good for one Indian and has made a MAN of him good enough to administer to all? Ah! too hard?
Feb 24, 1893 INDIAN HELPER

Dr. Eastman, who for some time has been native government Physician at Pine Ridge Agency, S. D., has quit the Indian service and is located in Minneapolis. This is promising. It begins to look as though he meant to take a decided step toward breaking up the tribe.

Dr. Eastman told us of a self-control society in Hartford, and ended by saying that each one could be a self-control society in himself.  There is the plan!,  Now let us act!  SELF-CONTROL, that is the power to master our. selves when we want to do something that we know we ought NOT to do.
Mar 10, 1899 INDIAN HELPER

  On Thursday, the 2nd of March, another great day for Carlisle passed into history.
  Thirty-three Indian young men and maidens received diplomas showing that each had taken the course of study required at the Carlisle Indian Industrial School.
  Fourteen States of the Union and 17 tribes of Indians were represented in the class.  Some of them had come to us years before, void of all learning, knowing not how to use the English language, but in their graduating orations gave evidence that the obstacle of language, at least, may easily be removed through proper means and wholesome environment.
  The class of '99 was favored in having its diplomas presented by a man distinguished as a great educator - Dr. William T. Harris, United States Commissioner of Education, whose address was profound in scholastic reasoning.
  The orations of the afternoon were delivered by Joseph Gouge, of Wisconsin, Bertha Dye, of New York, Kendall Paul, of Alaska, Minnie Finley, of Oklahoma, Louie McDonald, of Oklahoma, Dahney George, of North Carolina, and Vincent Natailsh of Arizona.
  Other speakers were the Honorable Commissioner of Indian Affairs, William A. Jones, General Henry B. Carrington, U.S.A., (retired), Rev. Dr. Reed, President of Dickinson College, and Miss Estelle Reel, Superintendent of the Indian Schools of the United States.
  The program for the afternoon consisting of music by the Band, Piano, Choir, Glee Club and entire school, in addition to the orations, was apparently much enjoyed by the more than 3000 people gathered in the spacious gymnasium, and the applause was most generous.
  The singing of Kipling's "Recessional" by over 700 Indian voices with band accompaniment produced a marked impression that was perceptible throughout the vast audience, while the Glee Club of 40 boys under the immediate charge of Professor Bland, of Carlisle, deserves more than passing notice for the excellent singing of "Sweet and Low."  The music throughout was complimented by several from the platform, being specially noticed by the Russian Officers who acknowledged surprise at the excellent character of the pieces rendered.
  This Thursday afternoon gathering termed the Commencement Proper was but the grand culmination of a series of exercises which began with the excellent baccalaureate sermon by Rev. Dr. Wile on the Sunday before, and on Monday evening, when some 2,000 or more people from the town and vicinity were invited to witness the gymnastic and calisthenic drill, given to the visitors from a distance on Wednesday afternoon.
  This drill always forms an attractive feature of the week and is the result of Disciplinarian Thompson's training in daily practice from the beginning of the school term in the Fall.  There were new features added this year, and the perfection of movement, the skill, dexterity and poetry of action charmed the thousands who witnessed the exercises.
  On Tuesday evening, J. Wells Champney,  the famous pastel artist of New York City, delivered a lecture before the Literary Societies and a large audience from town in Assembly Hall.  The lecture was replete with wit and interesting anecdote.  From the beginning lines of a straight-edged pig the artist with chalk and crayon led up to the graceful curves of a child's face, and on to the picturesque in landscape, giving scientific reasons for changes of lines, in a most attractive manner which could never tire the listener.
  Tuesday and Wednesday forenoon were devoted to town visitors, most of whom remained away on Wednesday afternoon in order that full opportunity might be given to visitors from a distance to inspect the industrial departments.  The crowd is so great that there is no satisfaction for any, if all throng through the shops at once.  The industrial inspection was viewed by hundreds who arrived from Washington, Philadelphia and other points at noon.
  On Wednesday evening a large gathering of more than 3000 people assembled in the gymnasium.  The band, choir, glee club, and school rendered music that was appreciated, and there were stirring speeches from a number of distinguished guests and from an unusual number of alumni and ex-pupils who had come from the West and other parts of the country to be present at the Commencement exercises.
  Major Pratt explained the purposes of the Wednesday evening meetings and introduced the speakers with prefatory remarks that were specially interesting, as they generally related to the personal experience of the one to follow:
  The first speaker called upon was Clarence Three Stars of Pine Ridge, South Dakota, who came to Carlisle with the first party of pupils nearly twenty years ago.  Mr. Three Stars' address was exceedingly taking in its simplicity and earnestness.
  Dr. Carlos Montezuma, whose double portrait as a child in the Apache camp and now as physician in Chicago, will appear in the Commencement Red Man, in connection with what he said on this occasion, spoke next.
  Then followed Dr. Eastman, of the Sioux tribe and of notable career as a physician and the husband of Elaine Goodale, the celebrated poet and writer.
  Howard Gansworth, class '94, now a student of Princeton University, gave a finished address full of quiet eloquence.  The dark visaged men of the forest and plain who in beribboned locks and deeply furrowed brows sat unable to understand the proceedings, formed a background which brought into conspicuous contrast this young man of grace and scholastic merit, thereby presenting a wonderful exhibition of the expansive gulf which lies between ignorance and superstition on one hand and education and refinement on the other.
  Benjamin Caswell, class '92, gave striking evidence in his manly address that Major Pratt's practical doses of civilization had taken effect.  Mr. Caswell has been his own man ever since he left Carlisle, serving the Government in various capacities of trust.
  Miss Alice C. Fletcher, whose fame is worldwide through her work of the Indians in allotting lands, and her scientific research in Indian folk-lore, now occupying a chair of fellowship in the great Harvard University, needed no introduction.  Her remarks were brief but warmly received by the large audience; especially was the applause enthusiastic in the Indian corner, each student regarding her as a personal friend.
  General Carrington had but a work to say, reserving his time for Thursday afternoon.
  An interesting episode here occurred, the Major asking the Russian Naval officers, whose presence honored this Commencement, to stand, so that all present might see them.  One of the number responded in good English to the call, complimenting the band and singing, as well as the general work of the school.
  Rev. Dr. Sheldon Jackson, Commissioner of Education for Alaska, then was called upon to introduce the great "North King of the United States" - Lieutenant David H. Jarvis, of the United States Revenue Cutter Service.  Dr. Jackson told of his wonderful courage over one year ago in carrying relief to the 400 perishing whalers and American citizens held by the ice of the Arctic region.
  Lieutenant Jarvis spoke for himself, relating a few of his experiences with the Indians of that north region, saying that the Esquimaux are only Indians.  He spoke in highest terms of their kindness and hospitality.
  Mr. Francis LaFlesche, of the Omaha tribe of Indians, for many years a prominent member of the Indian Office force, in Washington, D.C. was the next speaker.  He gave interesting personal experiences and in every sense fulfilled what the Major had said in introducing him, that he "always says something good."
  Elmer Simon, class '96, was teeming with gratitude to Carlisle for what he is and ever hopes to be, and was very happy in his remarks.  Mr. Simon graduates this year from the State Normal School at Indian, Pa.
  J. Stanley Brown, the husband of General Garfield's daughter, was next introduced, and was complimentary and encouraging in his brief address.
  Honorable Commissioner of Indian Affairs, William A. Jones, made the closing speech, with the exception of a few words from Gen. Carrington, relative to the fact that there never has been an Indian war that was not directly or indirectly the result of the white man's encroachment.
  The inspection of school rooms took place on Thursday morning.  Commissioner of Education William T. Harris conducted the examinations assisted occasionally by General Carrington.  Each school room was visited in turn an din each there was special interest manifested by the visitors as the questions were propounded.
  One visitor was heard to say when a pupil faltered over the question: "If 8 were two-twelfths what would the whole be?"  "There are people in this company who could not answer that question.
  But our space is full.  for all the little betweens, anecdotes and other items of interest we must refer our readers to the March number of The Red Man, which will be out in a few days, a limited number of which are still not engaged; five cents a single copy or 25 cents for 6 copies.
July 7, 1899 INDIAN HELPER

 Boys, get Dr. Eastman to tell you his story, how he worked his way through college.  He did not have an easy task, and is all the stronger man for it.  The hard pulls strengthen, and the disagreeable work from which we want to run away strengthens character if we hang to it.
  Dr. Charles Eastman and wife Elaine Goodale Eastman with their four children Misses Dora, Irene and Virginia and Master Charles, of Washington, D.C., arrived on Saturday evening for a few weeks' stay with us during the heated term.  Dr. Eastman is a Sioux Indian, a College graduate, and a man of wide information and experience in Indian affairs.  For some time he was Government physician at Pine Ridge agency.  He is now looking after the interests of Sioux claims at Washington.  The Doctor is a most interesting and intelligent speaker from the stand-point of his race, and is thoroughly progressive, believing that the only true salvation for the Indian is for him to become a voting citizen as speedily as possible.  Mrs. Eastman is widely known as a poetess and writer on Indian matters.


“The fact is,” said Dr. Charles A. Eastman, now the representative of his people at Washington, D. C., when I asked his opinion of the progress of the Indhaus toward citizenship-“the fact of the matter is that the reservation system is outgrown. Whatever benefitt it may have been at the “start in the way of resistence and protection, and in a nursery of civilization, at their present stage of development it is nothing but a hindrance. It makes children of them and so perpetuates Itself. Full citizenship is necesary now, in order to save the young men.”
The returned students are becoming a factor of importance, and what discourages them more than anything else is the lack of personal freedom.
The governmml of an Indian agency, as you know, is simply the arbitrary rule of the agent. He is supposed to encourage the educeated young men, but the truth is that he does not dare to have them know too much, and .if they begin to take an active interest in the affairs of their people, they are treated as boys who have got the "big head” and snubbed until, as a rule, they lose all heart and ambition. It is not particularly conducive to self-respect................


  Dr. Eastman tried his first "try" at bicycle riding one evening this week, and it is strange what a magnetic influence the 2x3 sample cotton field and peanut plantation had for his wheel, but the Doctor will accomplish the task, as he always does everything he undertakes.

   Dr. Eastman has gone to Washington, D.C. on business.  The doctor is a live man on all subjects and especially where the interests of his people are concerned.
Aug 25, 1899 INDIAN HELPER

  Dr. Eastman has returned from Washington.
   "Gin-gin" Eastman was quite sick for a day or two, but her friends rejoice to see her bright little face as smiling as ever.  O-hi-ye-sa, the baby boy, is as happy as happy when on the ground, down among the girls; and yet not so happy as he may be later in life at the same occupation.  We are allowed now, however, to say that he is sweet and interesting.  Dora is a girl of seven, and makes herself quite at home among her little Indian sisters, and curly haired Irene is always manifest with her pointed questions and baby-like logic.

   As school has begun, the regular services on Sunday afternoon were held in the Chapel last Sunday.  Dr. Wile, our Chaplain, being absent Dr. Eastman filled the pulpit in his stead.  He gave an interesting and impressive talk on the life of Joseph of Biblical fame and ended his address by appealing to all present to take up their work with earnestness whether at home or in a strange place.
Nov 10, 1899 INDIAN HELPER

  "Gingin" Eastman looks like Little Red Ridinghood in her pretty new cloak.
  Dr. Eastman went to Washington during the week on business, and taking a heavy cold was bedfast there.  He soon got better and returned Thursday.
Nov 17, 1899 INDIAN HELPER

  Dr. Eastman has gone to South Dakota on school business.
  Miss Stewart has no more interested little pupils in her sloyd class than Mary Stevick and Dora Eastman.  Esanetuck, Abram and others of the small children also take great pride in their sawing, planing, measuring and drafting.  The sloyd room is a little bee hive, and the process of head and hand cultivation there going on is to be highly commended for the small boy and girl of any race, and especially do the stolid little Indian boys and girls, who have come down from generations of stolidity, need this training.  The sloyd children make the most intelligent workers in the shops when they reach that stage of their development.

  Dr. Eastman arrived from the west on Christmas Day, having had a round among the agencies of the northwest.  He secured a number of students for us and created a good impression among Indians in favor of education in general and the getting of Indians out, in particular.  He took cold on his way in and has since been critically ill with double pneumonia.  We are happy to say at this writing that he is improving.

  Rev. John Eastman, who was summoned from Washington, D.C. to the bedside of his sick brother, Dr. Eastman, returned to Washington on Tuesday.  Both of these gentlemen are cultured Indians.
  Dr. Charles Eastman, reported last week as being ill with double pneumonia, was so low last Saturday night that there were almost no hopes of his recovery.  He had come through the pneumonia admirably, but the heart action and stomach condition which followed were alarming.  His brother, the Rev. John Eastman, who was in Washington, was telegraphed for, and came on Sunday.  About the time he arrived, a change for the better took place, and the Doctor is now steadily improving, with every prospect of getting well.  At this good news his many friends will rejoice and we trust that no serious back-set will befall him.  Dr. Diven and nurse, Miss Barr deserve large credit for their skill and untiring service in his behalf.
Jan 17, 1900 INDIAN HELPER

  Dr. Eastman is still improving.
Jan 26, 1900 INDIAN HELPER

  Dr. Eastman is up and around almost as usual, although he is still somewhat weak after his very serious illness, and will need to take good care of himself for some time to come.
  Thomas Saul who arrived with Dr. Eastman from Dakota a few weeks since, has entered the printing office.  Thomas has had some experience at the case and press and will no doubt prove valuable aid.

  Dr. Eastman looks better than we ever saw him and he says his appetite is of the "morish" type, whose demands are great.
Feb 23, 1900 INDIAN HELPER

 The Red Man has a unique and interesting Washington correspondent in the person of Rev. John Eastman, who writes his news in the Dakota tongue, which is translated for the columns of the Red Man by Mrs. Eastman.  The latter learned to read and speak the Dakota language perfectly in her several years' experience among the Sioux Indians in Dakota.
  Dr. Eastman is making his first trip among the boys in country homes.  He has been spending the week in New Jersey.  He is going to enjoy the work and appreciates the opportunity his visiting will afford to get acquainted with the boys individually and to gain an insight into situations which he could get in no other way.  There are difficulties and misunderstandings to straighten out, but there are more pleasant, hopeful and profitable features than disagreeable things to contend with.  Mr. Dagenett has been with him for a few days.

  Among the Februarians mentioned last week should have been the names of Miss Barr, Dr. Eastman and Irene Eastman.
  Irene Eastman found a birthday cake on the table at dinner Staurday evening, and it had six candles in it, one for each year.  She was a very happy little girl all day Saturday.
  Mrs. Eastman has gone to New York and New England on a lecturing trip.  She gives parlor talks on interesting and up-to-date topics pertaining to the Indian and to the duties of a mother.
  Those of us who heard Mrs. Eastman's clear and beautiful enunciation on the few occasions of her brief remarks in chapel regret that she did not favor the school with an address before going north on her lecture tour.
Mar 23, 1900 INDIAN HELPER

  Through the Eyes of the Man-on-the-band-stand.

  On the principle of "Best first, always best" we will begin with the last day - Commencement Day proper, the greatest day, in some respects that Carlisle has ever experienced.
  The heaviest snow of the season was falling as the people from town and vicinity gathered to hear the graduating exercises, held as usual in the large gymnasium.  Those from Washington and other points at a distance had arrived the day before.
  On the platform sat many of the distinguished guests, including Senator Thurston, of Nebraska, Chariman of the Senate Indian Committee,  Senator McCumber, of North Dakota, Senator Quarles, of Iowa, Senator Bard, of California, members of the same committee; Representatives Eddy, of Minnesota; Lacey, of Iowa; Stevens, of Texas; Sheldon, of Michigan; Thayer, of Massachusetts - all members of the Indian Committee of the House of Representatives; Delegate Dennis Glynn, of Oklahoma; Dr. M.E. Gates, Secratary of the Board of Indian Commissioners; General John Eaton, ex-Commissioner of Education, Rev. Dr. Paton, missionary from the Hebrides; Governor Brady, of Alaska; Rev. Dr. Sheldon Jackson, Commissioner of Education of Alaska; Miss Estelle Reel, Superintendent of United States Indian Schools, and a number of others.
  The opening Overture by the Band- Tannhauser, was listened to attentively and was enthusiastically applauded by the visitors.
  Prayer was offered by Reverend Dr. Patton, the venerable and venerated Hebrides missionary, whose long white locks and calm, sweet features added impressiveness to the fervent petition offered.
  The words of the school song, which followed, were composed by Elaine Goodale Eastman, now with us, to which Robert Hood
  Dr. Eastman has gone to Philadelphia on school business and will come home by Washington D.C.

  Dr. Eastman went to Arizona on Monday with Vanessa Lewis, Pima, who is seriously ill.

  The little poem on first page will be recognized as coming from "Apple Blossoms," that popular book of poems by Elaine Goodale Eastman, now with us, and her sister Dora written when they were children.
  Dr. Eastman arrived at Cassa Grande with his sick charge, after a hard journey, as the boy was ill most of the way.  The Dr. speaks of the mild climate of Arizona, but thinks the heat would be excessive in summer.
  Ground has been broken for a new cottage to be occupied by Professor Bakeless' family and Dr. Eastman's.  The building will be situated south of Mr. Weber's.

Apr 13, 1900 INDIAN HELPER

  Before another issue of the HELPER the April Red Man will be mailed.  This number contains editorial matter on "Twenty Years of Indian Education," and live squibs on present situations; "Club Women on the Indian Question"; a column or so of racy correspondence bearing upon present issues; Indian Music; a quantity of very interesting extracts from Graduates' Letters to the Alumni Association Book Reviews of the latest and best outputs on the Indian question; the most salient parts of the Report of the Commission of the Five Civilized tribes; a poem by Chinnubbie Harjo, and Dakota Lyrics translated by Elaine Goodale Eastman; an interesting "Story of Celiast"; " The Lost Colony of Roanoke Island," as given by Hon. John D. Bellamy, in the U.S. House of Representatives, recently; a good page of "Scissors and Paste; a communication from Levi Levering,'90, on "Treat the Indian as a Man;" fresh Washington news with all the appointments and transfers for March; pointed extracts from speeches made in the Senate on the Indian Appropriation Bill that caused considerable excitement at the time, besides locals and Miscellaneous squibs.  Terms of subscription, 50 cents a year, mailed the fifteenth of every month.  The HELPER and Red Man to one address for 55 cents.  Postage stamps in amounts less than a dollar acceptable.
 Dr. Eastman stopped at the Osage Agency on his way back from Arizona, and brought with him four Osage girls.  It being his first visit to that agency he has considereable to say of the different conditions there from those he has met with at other agencies.  The Doctor was kindly received by the Indians and whites wherever he went.
  Melinda Metoxen was at home from three to five o'clock, on Saturday last in her pretty room, assisted by Ada Sockbeson, Joesphine Jannies and Cynthia Lambert.  The guests were Mrs. Dorsett, Mrs. Canfield, Miss Weekly, Miss Kowuni, Susan Gibbs, Sophia Americanhorse, Master O-hi-ye-sa Eastman and Mrs. DeLoss. There were games and refreshments.  As the only young man present, Baby O-hi-ye-sa bore himself very graciously.

Apr 20, 1900 INDIAN HELPER

 Dr. George Bird Grinnell, the author of "Pawnee Folk Tales," "The Story of the Indian" and other books about Indians, accompanied by the well-known artist, Mr. E.W. Deming, was here on Monday upon a special mission for Harper's Magazine.  They left on Tuesday morning to visit a number of our boys and girls in country homes.  Dr. Eastman went with them.
Apr 27, 1900 INDIAN HELPER

  Dr. Eastman came in Sunday night, having seen about thirty boys, all of whom he found in good homes and giving good satisfaction.


  "The Story of the Little Big Horn," as told by Dr. Eastman from the Indian standpoint and illustrated with portraits of some of the chiefs who took part in that famous battle, will appear in the Chautauquan for July.
  Sarah LaBelle, who is seriously ill, left for her home in South Dakota Tuesday night, under the care of Dr. Eastman.
August 17, 1900 RED MAN AND HELPER

  The story of the Little Big Horn, the scene of the death of the much lamented General Custer, is told by Dr. Eastman in the July Chautauquan.
  The Review of Reviews has taken extracts from the account and placed the same under the caption of "Leading Articles of the Month" pronouncing it one of the most interesting in the Chautauquan for July.
  Voluminous account of this so-called massacre have been written by white men, but the Indian side has never before been fairly represented.

  [photo of Dr. Eastman]


is a Sioux Indian, born in Minnesota, in 1858.
  He was carried off by his uncle to Manitoba after the Minnesota massacre where he led the life of the wild Indians until he was fifteen years old, when his father brought him back to the States and sent him to school.
  He never attended a Government school, but was educated almost entirely at first class white seminaries and colleges, graduating finally from Dartmouth College and the Boston University School of Medicine.
  He has been a Government physician at Pine Ridge Agency in South Dakota, and later a practicing physician in St. Paul.  At one time he represented the Young Men's Christian Association among the Indians, and he is now connected with our school.
  Dr. Eastman has had special and peculiar opportunities to see and talk personally with a number of the prominent Indians who took part in Custer's last fight, and he has gone over the grounds to verify their statements so that in his account of an incident that stands out boldly in American history against our red brethren he has probably given the most accurate rendition from their standpoint that was ever recorded.
  We have not space for the entire article, and many points necessary to a complete understanding of the true situation immediately preceding and leading up to the final act, called the Custer Massacre, we must leave out.
  Dr. Eastman is convinced that the number of Indian warriors engaged at the Little Big Horn has been greatly exaggerated by all the historians of the fight.
  He estimated that there were not more than 5000 Indians in the camp that Custer attacked, and that the number of fighting men all told, including boys under eighteen and old men over seventy, many of whom had not sufficient weapons, could not have exceeded 1,400.
  There were seven bands of the Indians all trying to get away as far as possible from the military in order to hunt in peace.
  At midnight, on the 9th of June, the account says, there was great excitement in thg Minneconwojus camp.
  Heralds were soon galloping around all of the camps announcing the coming of the soldiers in great numbers.
  A party of forty warriors who went to Fort Reno had seen Crook's trail on their return. They followed it up, and finally gave him a running battle.
  Here was a band of only forty young men who dared to attack a command of over one thousand.  The army reports represent this attack as made by a large number of warriors.
  When these men brought the news, there was a great council of war. It was agreed to meet Gen. Crook, when he came within a day's march.  It was also planned that one half of their force should meet him, and that they would use all their tactics to take him at a disadvantage, and to stampede his horses if possible.
  (Here follows a description of the hemming in of Custer's column by the Indians.)
  On the 25th of June the early starters among the hunters had already brought in their game by  little after midday, but as usual there were many who had not yet returned; and fortunately not alI the warriors join in the daily hunt. There were hundreds of young men and boys upon the flats playing games and horse-racing. Any one who knows at all about the natural life of the Sioux upon the plains, would know these young men were armed as far as they had the weapons. These are their ornaments in time of peace - weapons of defence and offense in time of trouble.
  Many were in the midst of their meal when from the south end of the camp came the warning cry:
  "Woo! woo! hay-ay! hay-ay! Warriors to your saddles! the white soldiers are now upon us!"
  The Sioux who gave the warning was mounted upon a swift pony.  each leading chief was quick in calling upon his respective warriors to fight to the utmost.
  Some cried out to let the old men and the women move the children beyond the reach of the bullets; others loudly advised to remain still, "for," they said, "if ypu do not, the soldiers will believe we are confused and demoralized."
  By this time the bullets were whistling through the Hunkpapah camp, and the excitement was great. The young men who had been playing upon the flats were the first to meet Major Reno.  Led by

Sitting Bull’s nephew, Lone Bull, they rushed forward and would have forced him back, had it not been for the prompt interference of Gall, Rain-in-the-Face and Spotted Eagle.
  "Wait-wait!" they said. ‘We are not ready. Many of us have not our ponies at hand. Hold them there until there are warriors enough upon their ponies!"
  In the midst all the confusion, Sitting Bull stood by his teepee and addressed his people thus:
  "Warriors, we have everything to fight for, and if we  defeated we shall have nothing to live for; therefore let us fight like brave men."
  Major Reno now dismounted part of his men, and continued his fire upon the fleeing women and children. A large number of warriors had all but surrounded him, but had not yet charged.  Their position was along a dry creek that goes off from the river at this point.
  Gall, Crow King, Black Moon and Rain-in-the-Face now joined the young men this encouraged the latter so much that no sooner had Lone Bull given the  war-whoop for the charge than the soldiers retreated. The first company endeavored to return the way they came, but they were forced toward the east, almost at right angles with their trail.  Just as thwe Indians made theri general charge the second company of the soldiers turned to flee.  They were closely pursued.  The Indians, havin gfull knowledge of the ground and the river, were greatly encouraged.  Teh leaders shouted:
  "We can drown them all - charge closer!"
  The first company of soldiers fared tolerably well, but the second lost many men.  Many of the horses became unmanageable, and as their riders had no opportunity to choose a safe crossing, they were compelled to jump over the high river banks into the stream.  The Indians say there were several who never appearaed again.
  The opposite hill was equally steep and dangerous, but the soldiers scrambled up in a most unwarlike manner. Here some of the privates showed fine presence of mind and uncommon bravery. One of the officers of the fleeing command aroused the highest admiration of the Indians.  He emptied his revolver in a most effective way, and had crossed the river, when a gun shot brought him down. There were three noted young warriors of three different lodges (Indian young men have lodges corresponding to white men’s clubs or lodges) vying with one another for bravery. They all happened to pursue his officer; each one was intenet upon knocking him off with a war-club before the others, but the officer dispatched every one of them. The Indians told me of finding peculiar instruments on his person, from which I thought it likely this brave man was Dr. DeWolf, who was killed there.
  The pursuing braves soon saw that the soldiers were reinforced and occupied a good ravine for defense, so they concluded to hold them until more warriors could arrive; besides, they did not know how much of a force there might be behind. At this moment word was brought that a large body of soldiers had already attacked the lower camp, and they were advised to hold Reno’s men. The forces that repulsed Reno numbered not over five hundred. This was all that they could muster up in so short a time.  Of this number probably one hundred went over to the Custer battle; but they were a little late.
  Just as the forces under Gall, Rain-in-the-Face and Crow King made their famous charge, the lower (north) end of the camp discovered General Custer and his men approaching. The two battles were fully two and a half miles apart.
  "Woo! woo! here they come!" shouted the Indians, as Custer with his formidable column appeared on the slope of the ridge.
  They knew well he could not cross the  river at this point. He must go down half a mile. The crossing, therefore, became at once of first importance.
  As Crazy Horse started down to the ford, Custer appeared upon the river bank. Having discovered that it was impossible to cross, he began to fire into the camp, while some of his men dismounted and were apparently examining the banks.  Already Crazy Horse with his men had crossed the river, closely followed by Little Horse and White Bull with their Cheyenne warriors. Two Moon was still loudly urging the young men to meet the soldiers on the other side, and as he led the remaining Cheyennes in the same direction, the Minneconwojus and the Brules were coming down at full speed.
  The forces under Crazy Horse and Little Horse followed along ravine that went east from the crossing until it passed the ridge it then took a a southerly direction parallel with and immediately behind the said ridge.  Iron Star and Low Dog, on the other hand, turned southward immediately after crossing the river.  The firing from the camp still continued, and as the later forces arrived they at once opened fire upon tbe soldiers who were gradually retreating  toward the ridge half a mile back from the river bank.
  Up to this time General Custer did not seem to apprehend the danger before him. But when one company of his command reached the summit of the ridge it was quickly forced behind the brow of the hill by the Indians. The soldiers now took up three separate positions along the ridge.  But they were practically already hemmed in.
  At first the general kept his men intact; but the deafening war-whoops and the rattling sound of the gun-shots frightened the horses.  The soldiers had no little trouble from this source. Finally they let go of their horses and threw themselves flat upon the ground, sending volley after volley into the whirEng masses of the enemy.
  The signal was given for a general charge. Crazy Horse with the Ogallalas, and Little Horse and White Bull with the Cheyennes now came forward with a tremendous yell. The brave soldiers sent into their ranks a heavy volley that checked them for the moment. At this instant a soldier upon a swift horse started for the river. Again the Indians signalled for a charge. This time the attack was made from all sides. Now they came pell-mell among the soldiers.
  One company was chased along the ridge to the south, out of which a man got away.  A mighty yell went up from the Indians as he cleared the attacking forces, as if they were glad that ahe succeeded.  Away he went toward Reno's postiion.  The rest of the company were now falling fast and the ridge was covered with the slain.
  "Hay ay! hay-ay! Woo! Woo! The soldier who escaped is coming back!"
  The man now appeared again upon the ridge where he had just escaped death, closely pursued by fifteen warriors. He was more than half way down to Reno’s stand when the party set upon him.  They were coming up from the other battle.  Some say athat this soldier took his own life when he was driven back to the main body of the Indians.
  The soldiers found near the spot where the big monument now stands fought best and longest.  The Indians used many arrows and war clubs when the two forces came closer together.  There was one officer and his attendant who fought their way almost through, but they were killed at last.  They fell farthermost toward the east at the head of the ravine.  It is said that the private stood over the wounded officer, and when two warriors attacked him he killed one of them but the other lassoed him and dragged him away.
  Thus ended the battle and the career of a daring American officer.  It was a surprise to the Sioux that he held him men together so well.
  The battle of the Little Big Horn was a Waterloo for General Custer and the last effective defense of the Black Hills by the Sioux.  It was a fair fight.  Custer offered battle and was defeated.  He was clearly out-generaled at his own strategem.  Had he gone down just a half a mile farther and crossed the stream where Crazy Horse did a few minutes later, he might have carried out his plans of surprising the Indian village and taking the Indian warriors at a disadvantage in the midst of their women and children.
  Was it a massacre?
  Were Custer and him men sitting by their camp-fires when attacked by the Sioux?
  Was he disarmed and then fired upon?
  Custer had followed the trail of these Indians for two days, and finally overtook them.
  He had a fair chance to defeat the Sioux, had his support materialized and brought their entire force to bear upon the enemy in the first instance.
  I reiterate that there were not twelve thousand to fifteen thousand Indians at that camp, as has been represented; nor were there over a thousand warriors in the fight.  It is not necessary to exaggerate the number of the Indians engaged in this notable battle.  The simple truth is that Custer met the combined forces of the hostiles, and that he had not so much underestimated their number as their ability.


  Dr. Eastman is in the country this week on Outing business.
Sept 17, 1900 RED MAN AND HELPER

  The rooms at the north west corner of the dining-hall building second floor, vacated by the Eastmans, are to be made into one room - the mending room.  This will be a great improvement, making more room for the army of sewing girls that have to work in this department during term time.
  Dr. and Mrs. Eastman and their children, Misses Dora, Irene and Virginia and Master Charles left for Crow Creek, South Dakota on Wednesday morning.  Dr. Eastman being transferred and promoted.  His position here was Outing Agent, and there he will serve as Government Physician.  Elaine Goodale Eastman, widely known as a writer and poetess rendered excellent service for a part of their sojourn with us on the editorial staff of the Red Man.  She will continue in literary work.  They go among the Sioux Indians and are well known by them. Dr. Eastman is himself a Sioux, and has served in the capacity of Government Physician at Pine Ridge Agency, South Dakota, afterwards at St. Paul, in private practice.  Mrs. Eastman was the first Supervisor of Schools of the Dakotas, several years ago.  They will be missed at Carlisle, but none more than little Virginia, known among us as "Gingin" and her baby brother Charles whose Indian name is Ohiyesa.  He was petted by all and is a charming boy of nearly three.  We shall expect to hear from them from time to time in the way of interesting items for our readers.
June 17, 1904 RED MAN AND HELPER

Pleasant news and congratulations from Mrs. Elaine Goodale Eastman! The three oldest children have just completed their first school year with marked satisfaction and success. They enjoy their delightful home in Massachusetts. Dr. Eastman will address the Congress of Educated Indians at St. Louis, in July, on "The Apathy of the Indians," after which he proposes to spend two or three months in the west on his new book, "Red Hunters and the Animal People" will be published in the Fall by Harper and Brothers.
Febuary 1910 RED MAN


THE government is taking steps to supply Christian names to the Western Indians. Dr. Eastman, a Sioux Indian, a graduate of Dartmouth, and a well-known author and lecturer, has been selected to work among the Sioux. It is expected that this task will take some time. There seems to be no system in the naming of Indians, and in the old days, although the father might have been named Jumping Wolf, there is no indication that the son would take over the name of Wolf.
An Omaha dispatch says, concerning the manner in which boys were named:
"When a son was born to an Indian family very soon thereafter it was the custom of the father to step to the exit of the tepee. He pulled the flap aside and the first thing that attracted his attention became the name of his son. If, for instance, the father happened to observe a white owl, the son had bestowed upon him the name White Owl. Throughout the camp it was proclaimed that a son had been born to a certain Indian and that youngster was to be known as White Owl.
"After White Owl grew to man’s stature, or after he was a good sized youngster, old enough and big enough to take part in the chase, or engage in the warlike antics, if he distinguished himself in some manner, upon returning to camp he could call a smoker, and around the camp fire, when the pipe was being passed. he could recount his deeds of valor or prowess, and then state that he had changed his name. As an illustration: if he shot a buffalo through the heart, he could announce that his name would be Shoots-through-the-heart.
“Upon the birth of Red Cloud, his father stepped to the door of his tepee. It was just before sunrise, and the Eastern sky was fiery red. A short distance above the horizon was a cloud of still brighter red. The father saw this and decided that it should be his son’s name. When in time that son became a father, he stepped into the open, and as he did so a horse went scurrying by. From that day on the boy was known to all Indians and on the agency rolls as Running Horse.
“Sitting Bull came by his name in the same way: from the fact of his father, Black Wolf, having seen a bull sitting upon his haunches. It was in winter and the animal had slipped and fallen.
“There are such names as Man-afraid-of-his-squaw. It was not a name given by the father, but taken after manhood had been attained, and after marriage had been contracted. The Indian’s original name was Flying Hawk, but after becoming a man, and after marriage, it was discovered that his wife was a regular vixen. She beat him shamefully, and he was completely cowed; hence the name Man-afraid-of-his-squaw.”
November 1911 RED MAN

...........Saturday evening the weather was not propitious. Nevertheless in spite of the rain, a good audience gathered in the University Chapel. Professor George W. Knight, of the Department of American History, presided over this meeting. The principal address was given by Dr. Eastman who held the close attention of his audience in his interpretation of the Indian and his philosophy. Ten-minute talks by non-Indians occupied the remainder of the evening. The speakers were Mr. Sniffen, Mr. Converse and Miss Crawford. Each brought good wishes for the new association. Sunday was designated as Indian Sunday, and the ministers and some others were kept busy in the churches throughout the city. Never before was Columbus so thoroughly enlightened and so thoroughly interested in Indian affairs and in Indians.
March 7, 1913 ARROW

What Dr. Eastman Said. Be strong; be dignified in trying situations, like a tree that is blown back and forth by a strong wind and which regains its erect position after the storm. Keep your mouth closed. That is an Indian characteristic which we should cultivate. You Indian boys and girls have great advantages; many white boys and girls would like to have the same. Select the good from the new principles which we have learned, and keep all the good from the old. Thirty or-forty years ago some of our grandparents were living in tepees, and see where we are now! Isn’t that going some? Be honest, generous, religious, and patriotic.
Last Monday Carlisle was honored by a visit from Dr. Charles Eastman, noted lecturer and author. Dr. Eastman addressed the students in the Auditorium Monday afternoon.  Many employees and several people from town were present.
October 14, 1916 ARROW

In the "Safety First" contest recently held in the Philadelphia public schools, Leona Bonser had the best paper from her department in the Oak Lane public school. Her prize was "Smoky Day’s Wigwam Stories,"  by Dr. Eastman. She was given "distinguished" in her marks for conduct and effort for the month of September.
November 20, 1914 ARROW

Dr. Eastman Directs Maryland Boy Scouts.

With more than 100 scouts from Washington, Baltimore, and Fredrick in attendance, Camp Archibald Butt, the permanent Boy Scout Camp on the Chesapeake Bay, about five miles south of Chesapeake Beach, Maryland, was formally opened for its second season recently. Dr. Charles A. Eastman, a full-blooded Sioux Indian, who is to direct the camp this season, was presented to the boys. Dr. Eastman was a Government surgeon in South Dakota in the days of the ghost dance uprising, but for the past fifteen years has been devoting his time to writing and lecturing. He spoke to the boys as follows:
"I want you to know nature as the Indian knows it. I want to help you to learn of the birds, animals, trees, and wild flowers. I want to prove to you that if you treat nature right, nature will treat you right, for you are a part of nature."
    -Washington Star.