White Man. Ow-us-sait.
Cheyenne Ft. Marion POW.
 
 
Went to Hampton "Ahsit," arrived age 28 in Apr 1878.  Jun 1879 Removal to Carlisle 

From Joy Fisher based on US Senate booklet dated, Feb.1891 lists Indians sent to Hampton,  Apr 1878 through Oct. 1890. 

(9) We-ho/White Man; 1 man, 1 woman, 2 children, total 4; 

Text Copyright (c) John L. Sipes 2004 Sipes/Berthrong Cheyenne Collections. Fort Marion and Darlington Agency, Indian Territory Sections, File Numbers 42-56. Enrollment of Cheyenne and Arapahoe Tribe of Indians at the Agency. (This census shows native name, English interpretation, number of men, women and children in the family with the total in family. Notation at end of this Cheyenne census states: "I certify on honor that the foregoing is a full correct and complete list of Cheyenne Indians - and those only - at the Cheyenne and Arapahoe Agency, Indian Territory, who are entitled to subsistance. (S)" Jon D. Miles, U.S. Indian Agent, Cheyenne and Arapahoe Agency, I.T., March 1st, 1878.

Whiteman. (rg 1327 #350).CIIS ID #6.Name given as Whiteman, arrived CIIS 10/6/1879, aged 32. Set home 1/26/1880, 'sick' 

Genevieve Bell NARA collection.

Artist. 
Went to Lee Massachusetts 

Data based on information found in Karen Peterson's Plains Indian Art from Ft. Marion, thanks to Jackie Fear-Segal.

R.H. Pratt, St. Augustine, Sept. 19, 1876, to Agent Miles.----Dr. Friend, I send here in money as follows-Long Back to his wife, $4.00; From Medicine Water to his mother, $1.00, Sister, $1.00, and three children $1.00 each- $5.00; From White man to his baby, $1.00; From Bear Shield to Jno F. Williams to be expended for Bear Shields wife, $2.00; From Making Medicine to his mother, $2.00. Total $14.00. I send by Str. to N. Y. and fast freight to Wichita a box of things to you for the families of the prisoners. A few send nothing. Have taken steps to hurry it through and anticipate it will get to Wichita in about three weeks. The enormous Ex. charges forbid it going that way. I leave the charges to be paid at your end. If you do not find a way to stand the whole or even a half notify me and I will make it some way and assist. Weight about 175#. Minimic says to tell his wife they are all out of kinnekenic. 

Sipes / 2003

Night Killer/Diana White Man, female, born 1882. 

Census of the Cheyenne Indians of the Cheyenne and Arapaho Agency. Seger Agency on June 30, 1927, taken by L.S. Bonnin, Superintendent.
Text Copyright (c) John C. Sipes  2003 .

1891 Census, Cheyennes, June 30th, Charles Ashley, Supt.
# 1110 White Man, male, 30.
# 1111 Row Standing, female, (Shows children, Carrie Pendleton, 13, and Bessie Pendleton, 1.)

Sipes Cheyenne Files, Boarding School Section, Carlisle Indian School. Text Copyright (c) John L. Sipe  2005.

1892, Census of C&A, June 30th, 1892, shows # 1073 Carrie Roman Nose, daughter of White Man and Row Standing.
# 1087 shows David Pendleton Jr., son of Little Medicine, 49, and White Buffalo, 41.

Sipes Cheyenne Files, Boarding School Section, Carlisle Indian School. Text Copyright (c) John L. Sipe  2005.

1898 C&A Census, A.E. Woodson, Agent, June 30th.
# 978 White Man, husb., 48; # 979 White Buffalo, wife, 29; # 980 Daughter, daug., 12;  # 981 Yellow Hawk, 10;  # 982 Laura White Man, daug., 6.
 
Sipes Cheyenne Files, Boarding School Section, Carlisle Indian School. Text Copyright (c) John L. Sipe  2005.

 

How the American Indian Named the White Man:
By Alexander F. Chamberlain, Ph. D.,

Professor of Anthropology; Clark University, Worcester, Mass.; author of article on “North  American Indians” in the Encyclopedia Britannica

   PALE FACE” is not the only name by which the “white man” is known to the “red.” When the race of man now called by the rest of the world “Indians,” “ Redskins,” etc., first saw Europeans, not every tribe, nor every individual in each tribe, perceived them in quite the same light; and in nam-ing them, therefore, considerable variety obtained, due to peculiarities of personal appearance, difference in dress, characteristic movements and actions, manner of arrival, incidents accompanying or seeming to accompany their advent, etc. Some of these suggested rather commbnplace reactions, while others associated the newcomers with the mythological past or future of the Indians themselves.
     The physical appearance of our race suggested names like “white”, “white skin”, “white (pale) face”, etc., just as we ourselves have de-nominated other varieties of mankind “red”, “yellow”, “brown”, “black”, although not one of these terms can be said to be at all exact. The Algonkian Ojibwas, Miamis, Delawares, the Iroquoian Mo-hawks and Cherokees, the Haidas, Yuchis, and a number of other peoples have given us names signifying “white”, “white person”, white skin”, etc., although it is possible that in some cases the In-dian term is a mere translation of the English expression “white man”. More genuinely Indian, perhaps, is the appellation which has been given to us by the Algonkian Arapahos, Nihanatayschet, i. e., “yellow-hided”. But these same Indians call us also Nana-gaqamt, or ‘white skin”.
     America was discovered, and, in large measure conquered or colonized, in an age when the

“Soldier,
Full of strange oaths and bearded like the pard,”
was a common representative of European culture in its migratory aspects. ‘The aborigines of the New World, in general, not only did not affect hirsute adornments of the face, but even went SO far as to remove any stray hairs that might ultimately develop into beard, whiskers or moustache. T hus, one striking appellation for . t_he white man came easily to the Indian. It is, indeed, rather sur-prising that this peculiarity of the European physiognomy has not given rise to more names for the white man in Indian languages. A typical name of this sort is the Kiowa Bcdalpago, or “hairy mouth”. The Zuni Indians called the first Spaniards (the name is now applied to the Mexicans) Tsipolokwe, i. e., “moustached people”. One of the names for white men among the Algonkian Miamis is Mishkiganasiwug, i. e., “they of the hairy chest”, in reference to another peculiarity observed by the Indians in the physical appear-ance of the Europeans.
     The ears of the white man have also served to furnish him with a name. At first blush, it would seem very uncomplimentary that the Kiowas call a white man and a mule or a donkey by the same term, takai, literally, “ears sticking out”. But Mr. Mooney informs us that the name as applied to us refers to the fact that the white man’s ears, “as compared with the Indian’s, stick out, while those of the latter are partly concealed by his long hair”. This relieves us of the ignominy of being directly compared with the burro. Nor  have the eyes of the white man been forgotten. An old vocabulary of the language of the Crows or Upsarokas, a Siouan tribe, gives for “ white men”, Mashteeseeree, i. e., “yellow eyes”.
     That the voice of our race has not been altogether pleasing to the Indian is certain, for one of the Kiowa names for white men, Ganonko, signifies “growlers”.
     The clothing, etc., of the European newcomers is responsible for not a few of the names bestowedupon the race by the American aborigines. The Natick or Massachusetts Indians termed the first Englishmen they met Wautaconuaog, “coat men”, or “they who wear clothing”. The Kiowa Gantonto means “cap-wearers”, and the name Kmtabere, which the Mohawks of the Lake of the Two Mountains, Que., bestowed on the first Scotch settlers, was given in reference to their “Tam o’shanters”, which the Indians thought resembled eta, i. e., a cow-dropping.
     Association of the newcomers with something characteristically non-Indian, or unknown in the New World, in part or altogether, gave rise to another group of names. Thus, the “medicine-men” of the Cental Eskimo, Dr. Boas tells us, call the white man, in their secret-language, Kidlatet, a word derived from kidlak, “iron”. Long reported the name for white men among the Siouan Oto as Maxonkka, or “iron- makers”; and the Haidas of the Queen Char-lotte Islands term the white men Yets-haidagai, i. e., “iron people”. The fact that the white men brought with them iron and its use evi-dently made a great impression upon the minds of the Indians. The iron hatchet suggested other names. Thus, one lroquoian tribe applied to the Dutchman the name Asset-oni, “he makes hatchets for axes)“, and a corresponding term, Onserolmi, is that by which the French are known to-day to the Mohawks of the Lake of the Two Mountains. This seems to have been a rather general appellation for the Europeans. The possession of swords and similar weapons suggested among many tribes the names “knife-men”, “big knives”, “long knives”, “people of the big (or long) knives”, etc. This name is on record very early, for “knife-men” is the meaning of the Narragansett Chauquaquqck of Roger Williams, and the Massachusetts Chogqussog of Cotton. The term seems to have been used later of the English-Amerians in particular, for whom a name signifying “long knives”, or “big knives” occurs among many Algonkian and Siouan dialects. Such, e.g., is the meaning of the Ojibwa Chimokoman; Hidatsa maetsihateki; Dakota irangtanka; Black-foot Omakkbtoapikwan; Delaware M’chonsikan, etc.
     References to the ships by means of which the white men cross-ed the ocean are contained in some of the names given them by the Indians. The Nootka word for white man or European signifies apparently, “house-adrift-on-water,” and the Ojibwa Wemitigosbi, with its cognates in other Algonkian dialects, may refer to “wooden vessels,” or, as has also been suggested, to something else “wooden (mitigol”, perhaps “boxes” or “trunks,” unless this latter- explanation be due simply to folk-etymology,-in Ojibwa, mitipash means “trunk, valise,“, etc. The Montagnais of northeastern Quebec call a Frenchman, Meshtukushu, plainly a derivative of mesbtukd ‘wooden canoe.” The coming of the Europeans from over the sea, or Out of it as some of the aborigines may have thought, furnished he b&s for another set of names. One of the names of the white ; men among the Pt. Barrow Eskimo in the time of Richardson was Emakblin,’ i. e., %ea man.” The Algonkian Delawares called the Dutch, and then the Europeans in general, Schwonnaquin, or “people from the salt (sea).” The eastern origin of the white man is referred to in such names as the Quebec Mohawk Tiorhensaka, i. e., “in-habitant of the east,” by which the Englishman is known; the Moqui term for Americans, Pahalra, or “eastern-water-people,” etc.
     Some tribes have satisfied themselves more or less until closer acquaintance made another name necessary, with calling the white man simply “foreigner,” “stranger,” etc. This is the meaning of the Kutenai nutiukine, the use of which seems now restricted to desig-nate a Frenchman, the Navaho Nakhai (the Mexicans were termed ironically Nakhai diyini, i. e., “holy foreigners”), etc.
     A curious and interesting series of names is represented by the Pequot LVaunux, Penobscot Awcnoch, Passamaquoddy wetrorh, Micmac Wenjooch, all of which, applied sometimes to the English-man and sometimes to the Frenchman, and sometimes also used in a rather general sense, signify literally “Somebody is coming,” or “Who is this coming?“-one of the most primitive methods of refer-ring to the “stranger” or “foreigner,” but one that is responsible for similar names in other parts of the globe.
     Mythological, or partly mythological, relations are discernible in a number of Indian names for the white man.. The Eskimo Kab-Zunak is said by Rinkto refer to the legend of the girl and the dogs, although what is perhaps a better interpretation would connect it with “daylight.” The Shoshoni Taivo, Paiute Zzvibo, is derived from Tabi, “the sun,” though, in the sense of “easterners,” perhaps and not of “sun men” otherwise. Something similar may be said of one of the Eskimo names for white men Shakenataaagmeun, “people from under the sun,” a term in use at Point Barrow. With the Ma& term Sakini, i. e. “ghosts,” or “spirits,” suggestd perhaps by the ‘*white color,” we reach another field of ideas exemplified a-mong the aborigines of Australia and elsewhere.
     In distinguishing the different European nationalities one from another, the Indians have developed some curious appellations. Thus the Modoc word for German, Muni tchuleks gitko, means “thickset fellow;” the Pima parlejick, Frenchman, is derived from the Spanish padre, “priest;” the Creek word for German given in 1775 by Adair, Yah yah algeh, signifies “whose talk is ja ja;” one Ojibwa name for a Scotchman, Opitoto~e~, means “he who speaks differently;” a Hidatsa term for Frenchman, Masik’ti, signifies “true white;” the Mohave name for a Spaniard or Mexican is hazko tahana, or “long white man.” In the Chinook jargon of the Co-lumbia river region, and in several lndian languages of the Pacific coast also, the American is named after Boston and the English-man and Canadian after K&g George, e. g., in I&math, Kutenai, Carrier Dene, etc. At the beginning of the nineteenth century, on the North Pacific coast, Boston stood practically for all the United States as King George did for England. Morever, to the the Algonkian Micmacs on the shores of the Atlantic at the present day the United States is Boston, and any inhabitant of it Boostoon-kawaach, while the Quebec Mohawks, in like manner term an American Wastonronon.
     Another example of the aggrandizement of purely local appella-tion is to be seen in the Cherokee name for Americans, Aniwatsitri, which, according to Mr. Mooney, is derived from Watsini, a corruption of “Virginia,” or rather “Virginny.”
     Of course, the names by which the various European nations designated themselves often drifted in the Indian languages of the continent. Thus Englishman has given rise to the modern Canadian Abenaki Iglizmon, Delaware IngeZ&bman, etc., and the French AngZais (others have thought Yankee) has been suggested as the origin of the numerous Algonkian terms for Englishman repre-sented by the Ojibwa Shagenash and its cognates.’ In Abenaki and in Massachusetts respectively we find as corruptions of the English “Frenchman,” Pelajemon, and Punachmon. The Chinook jargon word for “Frenchman,” Pasaiuks (the Klamath has borrowed it in the form Pasbayuks), is said to be a corruption of the French Francair with an Indian suffix.
     The Ojibwa word for German Anima, is the French allemand, as is also the Micmac Alma. The influence of Pennsylvania Dutch is seen in the Cherokee Tahchee for German; in Sac and FOX a German is called tibia, in Klaath, DetchmaZ, etc. From French espagnoZ have come Nipissing Espaniio, Ojibwa Esppayo, Sac and Fox A ‘paya’, Quebec Mohawk Eskwatlior, etc. Both Cherokee An&~~anr and Klamath Spaniolkni are de-rived from the Spanish e.rpanoZ with suffixes peculiar to these two languages.
     When the Indians came to name the Negro a number of tribes simply called him “blackman,” or “black white-man,” and let it go at that; or ‘*black foreigner,” etc. The Kutenai Kamkokoktl aqkt.remakintk and the Delaware Nesgessit lenape would seem to signi-fy “black Indian.” The Narragansett Suckauttacone means “black Englishman,” the Menominee Apesen wameotikosin, similarly, “black Frenchman,” and the Navaho Nakhai lizhini, “black Mexican.”
     Thorough-going records of the various Indian languages would no doubt give us many more names of the white man than we now possess, for the Red Men were often quite capable of studying the new race in much detail, sometimes with a rather richvein of sarcasm or humor of a very pointed sort, where time and occasion permitted. This is indicated, e. g., in the terms for Mexicans and Americans contained in the ethnological dictionary of the Navaho language recently published by the Franciscan Fathers. Among the terms applied to the Mexicans we find: “Holy,” “immortal,” “hairy,” “fluffy, ” “beard, ” “shawls,” “long hats.” The Texas rangers were called “iron shirts,” “leather leggins,” etc., the early American soldiers: “Those who sleep on their ears,” “those who shoot from the side;” “those who burn their kneecaps, (at the fire);” “the sun-burnt ones;” “those whose foreheads protrude (this from the shape of their caps),” etc. Altogether the investigation of the ways in which the “Indian” named the “white man” is one of the most inter-esting aspects of the study of race-contact in the New World.

January 1912 RED MAN (a monthly magazine published out of the Carlisle Indian School).