The 1890-1891 issues of the weekly INDIAN HELPERS and monthly RED MAN newspapers feature some very interesting spin designed to influence students at the Carlisle Indian School.  The paper's editor(s) focused on encouraging them to return to their respective agencies wearing their new, assimilated identities.
The following article appeared just after the Wounded Knee massacre, in response to the charges that a cavalry officer had been killed by Plenty Horses, a former Carlisle graduate.  The school administration denied that Plenty Horses had ever been a Carlisle student, let alone a graduate.  That wasn't an outright lie...Plenty Horses' Carlisle name was changed to Plenty Living Bear (after his father, Living Bear).  Complicating the process of finding information about former Carlisle students is the problem of naming or re-naming. It's also true that Living Bear was not a graduate. Very few students graduated from Carlisle. Out of a known population of 10,700+ students, only 758 graduated.  It's interesting to note that Carlisle tried very hard to distance itself from the Sioux "hostiles" and served to present the Carlisle Sioux students who had returned to the Pine Ridge area as non-"hostiles." 

What follows is excerpted from the January 30, 1891 INDIAN HELPER:

   "The despatch [sic] which has been sent out over the county, saying that a son of No-Water, 'and a graduate of the Carlisle School,' was the slayer of Lieut. Casey, is utterly false, so far as it relates to Carlisle.
   No-Water's son has never been a student of this school, adn inquiry among our Sioux students has developed the fact that No-Water has never sent his children to school anywhere.
   Furthermore, there are but two Sioux in the county, who can produce diplomas of graduation  from Carlisle school.  One is George W. Means, now a clerk at the Pine Ridge Agency, and the otehr is Nellie Robertson, who is now here, attending Metzgar Institute for young ladies, in Carlisle."
There is a photograph of Plenty Living Bear in the Cumberland County Historical Society's photo collections. The photo is included in an album with other children from  Carlisle, and the likeness to his later photos is unmistakeable.  There's also a photo of him with his father, Living Bear, in an article written by Robert Utley.  Plenty Horses was known at Carlisle as Plenty Living Bear.

The Carlisle Indian School's denial of Plenty Horses' Carlisle years is clearly a smokescreen.  By saying that the son of No Water "was never here" is technically the truth.  There was no person by the name of No Water.  No Water was the place where the young men had gathered in safety during  the Wounded Knee period.  Plenty Horses was among them.  It's not clear who authored the article denying Plenty Horses' enrollment at the school and there seems to be no account for how that denial was received by students at the school who knew the truth. 

During the trial, an agent from Pine Ridge recalls Plenty Horses telling the jurors:
   "I am an Indian.  Five years I attended Carlisle and was educated in the ways of the white man. . . .I was lonely.  I shot the lieutenant so I might make a place for myself among my people.  Now I am one of them.  I shall be hung and the Indians will bury me as a warrior. They will be proud of me.  I am satisfied."

....And, months later, this shows up in the school newspapers:



<+--- H I S   P R E S E N T   A N D   F U T U R E. ---+>
 FEBRUARY & MARCH, 1891. NO. 10.
The Mechanical work Done by
   Terms: Fifty Cents a Year.
     Five cents a single copy.
 Mailed irregularly, Twelve numbers
    making a year's subscription.
 Address all business correspondence to
      M. Burgess,
             CARLISLE, PA.
  Entered as second class matter at the
Carlisle, Pa., Post Office.
  "The Common Schools are the stomachs of the country in which all people that come to us are assimilated within a generation. When a lion eats an ox, the lion does not become an ox but the ox becomes lion."

   The following report of returned Carlisle pupils at Pine Ridge Agency, Dak., the seat of the recent Indian troubles, was secured by Mr. Standing while there recently.  He had been sent to bring a party of new pupils who were desirous to come to Carlisle.  Of the number reported in the following list there is only one graduate.  The others came to Carlisle generally without English and many were in Indian dress.  They remained long enough to gain a smattering of English only.  Most of them
Mr. Standing saw personally and talked with.  This is in substance what he learned about them:

  Bennet Whirling Bear, returned June 23, '80; no information; probably dead.
  Guy American Horse, returned June 19, '82; dead.
  Lucy Day, returned June 19, '82; has not always done well but is now all right and working in the family of the Rev. Chas. Cook.
  Balwin Blue Horse, returned July 6, '84; has been off with a show; he wears Indian and citizen's dress turn about; has done well at times; is mentally deficient.
  Lizzie Glode, returned Feb. 14, '84; is now Mrs. Sherman lives at the Omaha Agency; has done well.
  Frank Twiss, returned Feb. 14, '84; is a valuable hand at the agency; has worked steadily ever since his return and nothing but the most excellent reports were heard of his conduct and true worth.
  Clarence Three Stars, returned Oct. 6, '84; works at the traders; receives good wages; has a most desirable record since return; faithful, steady, efficient; an influence for good, quiet, everyone speaks highly of him.
  Edgar Fire Thunder, returned Oct. 21, '84 is now a scout; has been working steadily in the Agency blacksmith shop; a little inclined to be headstrong but is a good worker and a man of character; lost twenty-five head of cattle and some horses by the hostiles.
  Maggie Stands Looking, returned Nov. 19, '84; is now Mrs. Belt; her husband kept store on Medicine Root Creek; they lost all by the hostiles.
  Amos Lone Hill, returned July 6, '85, is a carpenter and scout; has a good record; lost fifteen head of cattle by the hostiles.
  Alfred Lone Eagle, returned June 22, '86; dead.
  Chas. Bird, returned June 22, '8; is a scout and an active worker.
  Dana Long Wolf, returned June 22, '86; is in the penitentiary.
  Robt. American Horse, returned June 14, '87; is a catechist for the Episcopal church at an important station at one of the camps; he stands high; his opinions on matters concerning the interests of the tribe are regarded as those of a leader; he is a strong character in the church and among the young men; his influence is always for good.
  Newton Big Road, returned June 26, '86' is on the police force.
  Edward Jannies, returned May 4, '87; works on home ranch.

  Of those who returned June 14, '87:
  Clayton Brave, is a government scout; it is said he was with the hostiles, but he himself denies having taken any part; he was trying to get his people to return to the agency and when between fires was wounded in the leg.  He has travelled with a show; married Julia Walking Crane (Carlisle pupil).
  Mack Kutepi, through misunderstading and what he considered harsh treatment after having broken a rule resigned his position at the agency, but worked steadily up to that time at his trade, that of harness making, every one speaking of him in the highest terms; he was two months with ghost-dancers, but has gone back to his work and is again doing well.
  Wallace Charging Shield has done well since his return, and during the latter part of the time has been working at the boarding school and was much valued; has since returned to Carlisle.
  George Fire Thunder is working at the agency; has not done altogether as well as he might but well in the main.
  Emma Hand married Charles Means; husband left her; she lives with her sister; has done well in so far as she could.
  Alice Lone Bear dresses nicely; looks clean; has made some failures but heard nothing of ill-repute concerning her; is not married.
  Katie White Bird is married; lives near agency.
  Robert White Cow Killer, is a small boy and sickly; is classed as being with the hostiles; went with his father; is now attending Catholic school.
  Thomas Brown returned Apr. '88; dead.
  James Black Bear returned Apr. '88, works at the agency.
  William Black Eagle returned Apr. '88; dead.
  Nellie Hunter returned May 22, '88; lives at home with her mother.

  Of those who returned July 6, '88:
  Paul Black Bear is out with a show.
  Wiliam Brown is a scout; lost several hundred dollars worth of property, household goods, etc, by the hostiles.
  Oscar White Face is dead.
  William Crow, gone with the Cheyennes.
  Moses Culbertson is a scout; good report, married an educated girl; doing well.
  John Black Wolf is dead.
  Lizzie Dubray is a good wife and mother; is much discouraged over the losses sustained in the recent war; $300 worth of furniture was destroyed by the hostiles.
  Mary Woman's Dress works at the Catholic mission.
  Marshall Hand is a scout.

  Of those who returned July 8, '89:
  Hope Blue Teeth is now Mrs. Frank Locke; gone to Rosebud; well spoken of in every particular; a woman of strong character and exerts a splendid influence.
  Millie Bisnett lives near the agency; dresses in civilized dress and is doing well.
  John Rooks is working in the carpenter and wagon shop; is married.
  John Pullam works for Mr. Bennett, a farmer.
  Charles Elk has gone with the Cheyennes.
  Frank Jannies has a good record; gone to Rosebud.
  Frank Lock has a most excellent record; is catechist and blacksmith at the same time; lives at Rosebud.

  Of those who returned July 29, '90:
  Frank Conroy is a scout and does blacksmith work.
  Alex Yellow Wolf is a scout.
  Edward Kills Hard dresses in blanket and was with the hostiles; denies having taken any part.
  Thos. Black Bull Porcupine is in camp; wears citizen's dress.
  Lewis Crow-on-Head lives near agency; wears citizen's dress.
  Ota Chief Eagle is a scout; returns to Carlisle as soon as enlistment term is served.  Joseph Long Wolf is a scout.
  Edward Yankton in camp; citizen's dress; no work.
  Charles Dakota has gone with Cheyennes; Arthur Standing Elk and Laura have also gone with the Cheyennes.
  Julia Walking Crane wears Indian dress and she is married to Clayton Brave.
  Isaac Kills Hard, with the hostiles.

  Of those who returned March, '89:
  George Little Wound did not join the hostiles with his father, but remained quietly at the agency; is now a scout.
  Adelia Tyon (small) attends school at the agency; and so does Lizzie Frog.

  Joseph Little Brave returned April 24, '86; gone to Rosebud.
  Louisa Gallejo returned June 17, '84; gone to New Mexico.
  George Means returned Sept. 17, '90; is working as clerk in the office.  He is the only Carlisle "graduate" there.


Working at various employments and doing well.....................22
Working as scouts or police .........12
Doing nothing in particular...........4
No information........................1
In penitentiary, on doubtful charge...1
Hostiles, including Julia Walking Crane, Little Robert Cow Killer, and Mack Kutepi, a steady worker before and since....................6
Gone to other agencies...............11


  There were two in Indian dress, one of whom had his clothes stolen by e hostiles.

"Mr. and Mrs. Vance, of Orangevelle, visited our school on their wedding tour last Friday.  The groom is the son of Mr. Vance with whom Plenty Livingbear, Joel Tyndall and others lived for a time."

October 14, 1898 INDIAN HELPER

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