The football boys started light practice on September 1st. Only drieoi last year's team was on hand the first day, but some of the veterans have been dropping in from day to day until at this time they include Captain Wauseka, Afraid-of-a-Bear, Aiken, Hauser and Payne. Besides these regulars, Geo. Gardner, Lyon, Oldman, Ballenti and Winnie are training and I&+el- of ‘iaSi iem9s Haskell team gives promise of developing into a Varsity man, The team will miss the services of ex-captain
Lubo, Mt. Pleasant, Wm.Gardner Exendine and Hendricks. Exendine is still a student here, but will be prevented from playing by reason of the four years’ eligibility rules and he will help the team by aiding in the coaching. Since both last year's ends
are out of it, Exendine experience will aid greatly in developing the end material.

Dr. Jas. Johnson, captain of Carlisle’s famous team of 1903, and all- ‘American quarter of that, year, will again assist Mr.. Warner in developing the team and the prospects, while not at the present being particularly bright, are by no means dis-
couraging. Carlisle sympathizers may be assured of being at least creditably represented upon the football field again this year and with such an able captain as Wauseka and under the same coaches as last year, with all working together in harmony and with the support of all the students and employees, there is no telling what great result might be accomplished. It will be a very difficult matter however, to duplicate last season's record.

Dr. Larkin, a former star end of the Cornell team, has been the guest of Mr. Warner and has been assisting in the coaching for the past ten days. He has given the ends some valuable pointers. He will leave shortly to assume his duties as coach of the Cornell University team. The squad appreciates the assistance he has rendered here and wish him success in his work at Cornell. The second team, commonly known as the "Hot Shots” have changed their name to the “Hustlers” and will make
every team they meet hustle pretty lively to defeat them. The team  will be very light, but every man will be a hard fight and a hustler in every sense of the word. Several of last year's second team has been promoted to the varsity squad and it looks now as though some of last year's shop @am men will also make it. Training table will start Tuesday when about fifteen men will be taken on. Others will be sent to the table as fast as they show Varsity ability.

The second team will eat at the student’s dining room table as  ..- _._-- - last year, but they will have a special table and will be furnished extra food by the Athletic Association. _

September 11, 1908 ARROW



Fir+ of all, twigs of sagebrush row is anybody’s game, with Syra- ‘- . and grass are gathered in piles and .cuse the favorite, as they out-played
-Yale last Saturday and have practi-
. tally their entire last year's team in
the line up, while Carlisle has lost
many veterans and two of the regu-
lars, namely Afraid-of-a-Bear and
Houser, who will not be able to’ play,
so that only five of last year's team
will be in the line-up. If the team
can pull through this game without
defeat a great load will be lifted from
the shoulders of the coaches and
supporters of the team,. and in the
two weeks remaining ‘before the
Penn game, it is figured that the
team can be nursed into fairly good
condition. Just now nearly every
man on the squad has some physi-
cal handicap in the way of bruises
and sprains. -.
October 9, 1908 ARROW


THE DENVER - INDIAN GAME.
Carlisle Outplays the Past Denver Team
in an Interesting Game.-Score, 8-4.
Special wire to Arrow.

The Indians won the toss and chose
the west goal, Schraeder kicking off
to Thorpe on the 5-yd. line at 2:39
p.m. Thorpe returned 15 yds, but
fumbled, Balenti falling on the bail.
Afraid-of-a-Bear was injured, but
remained in the game. The Indians
not able to get through the Denver
line; Balenti tried the right end and
got 1 yd. Thorpe gained 2 on a cross-
buck and then Balenti punted out of
bounds. Denver's ball on’ the In-
dians’ 37-yd. line. Crowley made the
first .gain for Denver, butting left
tackle for 2 yds. Volk got through
on a wild plunge through Wauseka.
Brussell dropped back for a Princeton
from the 31-yd. line, but his try is
inside and short. Hendricks gets
the pigskin for Indians on the 5-yd.
line; the ball is given to Hendricks
who smashes into right tackle for
3 yds. Payne goes through Wingenger
for 5 yds. and repeats for four more.
Hauser then kicked 35 yds. to Den-
ver’s 45-yd. line. Here Brussell is
downed in his tracks. Volk is sent
around left end, but is tossed for a
2:yd. loss. Schraeder finds a stone-
wall and is caught. in his tracks.

Schraeder then boots pigskin ‘thirty-
five yds. to Thorpe. The Indians
are still attacking Denver’s line and
Thorpe tears off 8 yds. through Ben-
nett. Hendricks gets past the punter
for 3 and ball is on Indians’ 35-yd.
line. Hendricks gets 3 yds. and then
Hauser boots to Brussell who fumb-
les and recovers. The ball is on
Denver’s 35 yd. line. Volk fumbles
in first play, Wauseka falling on ball.
Payne bumps. center for 4 yds. and
comes right back at same place for
3 more. Thorpe gets 4 yds. through
Bennett. Denver at 20-yd. line mak-
ing desperate attempt to prevent a
touchdown. Hauser falls back for a
Princeton and boots ball through
goal from 30 yd. line. Score, Car-
lisle 4, Denver 0.

Schraeder kicks off to Balenti who
returns 39 yds. through entire Den-
ver team.
bounds,
Balenti punts out of
on Denver’s 34-yd. line.
Denver’s ball. Crawleymade 3 yds.
and fumbled, Wauseka getting the
ball on a triple pass, Thorpe to
Balenti to Hauser. Ball is run down
to Denver’s 19-yd. line. Crawley gets
Hendricks *for a 1-yd. loss. Payne
fumbled and Schraeder gets the ball.

The big Denver full-back immedi-
ately boots 42 yds, the ball rolling
out of bounds on Denver’s 41-yd.
line. Hendricks hits center for 4 yds.
Payne gets one, and then Hauser
45 yds. Brussell runs ball about 3
yds. Schraeder gets 3 yds. on a tie
at left tackle. Schraeder punts 35
yds. to Balenti, who returns 15 yds.
by great interference Thorpe ma-kes-
5 and then being tackled, tosses ball
to Hauser, who makes 5 more before
being discovered with it; the ball on
Denver’s 36-yd. line. Hendricks gets
3 yds. on a cross-buck. Hauser
~gets 1 yd. through wing and --the
ball is on Denver’s 33-yd. line. Hau-
ser drops back 8 yds. and makes an-
other score. Carlisle 8, Denver 0.
Schraeder kicks off 50 yds. to Hen-
dricks, who returns ball 15 yds. af-
ter a fumble and recovers. Thorpe
gains 4 yd. on a fake. Thorpe tem-
-porarily disabled and time taken out.

Little Old Man punts 45 yds. through
Brussell, who is downed in his tracks.
Ball on Denver’s 45-yd. line. Schroe-
der gets 3 yds. Schraeder punts 35
yds. Ball Roes out of bounds. Ball
on Indians’ 35yd. line. Thorpe adds
5 yds. on fake punt. Thorpe gains 2
yds. Thorpe punts 30 yds. to Brus-
sell, who returns ball 5 yds. Craw-
ley gets 5 yds. on fake forward pass.
Schrae&r@iiigairis3. onf%%dm
Volk in criss-cross gains 5 yds. Craw-
ley fails to gain in try at end. Schrae-
der punts 30 yds. to Balenti, whore-
turns ball” 12 yds. Thorpe goes
through tackle for 12 yds. Time out
for ,Thorpe and Brussell. Ball on
Indians’ 53-yd. line. Hauser adds 1.
Thorpe punts out of bounds. Brus-
-.
sell gains 10 yds. on open formation.
Brussell and Crawley manipulate
forward pass to Shraeder, whichhets
Denver 12 ycfs. Ball on Indians’ 36-
yd. line. Brussell loses 5 yds. when
Hauser breaks through. Time call-
ed with ball on Indians’ 41-yd. line
Score end of first half, Indians 8,
Denver 0.

THE SECOND HALF.
The ball was kicked off for second
half by Hauser at 325. Denver
immediately began to tear up the
Indians’ line. Volk caught ball on
kickoff and returned 25 yds. to Den-
ver’s 30-yd. line. Crawley gained 7
yds. through right tackle. Volk gets
6 yds. on a cross-buck around left
end. Schraeder gets 2 on a center-
buck play. Volk made a 15-yd. run
-around the end and places the ballon
Indians’ 47-yd. line. Volk put out
by a hard tackle, but recovers.
Crowd cheers as he jumps to feet
again and enters the game with a
vim. Volk gains 4 yds. through left
tackle; ball on~lnalanS’*t5lymne.---
Meyers gets 5 yds. Ball on Indians’
38-yd. line. Schraeder gets 1; center J
rush Crawley goes around right end
for 7 yds. Denver penalized and
loses chance for goal. Ball on Indi-
ans’ 29-yd. line. Schraeder fails to
gain in plunge through right guard.

Forward pass to Prunter gets 15 yds.
Ball on Indians’ 5-yd. line. Crawley
makes 4 yds. Ball on Indians’ 2-yd.
line. Schreader has only one yd. to
go to put the ball over the goal, but
the Indians’ line’is like a stonewall
and was held. Ball is brought out
9 yds. because of snow, and the Indi-
ans punt 26 yds. to Schraeder, whe
returns 8 yds. Ball on Indians’ 18-
yd. line. Brussell trys for Princeton.
BaII sails fair between theuprights--
scoring Denver’s first tally. Score,
Indians 8, Denver 4.

Balenti kicks 19 yds. to Volk,
who brings the balllback 20 yds. to
Denver’s 27-yd. line. Lyon hurt and
replaced by Jordon. Schraeder fails
to gain. Denver penalized 15 yds.
(Continued cm page 4.)

=THE DENVER INDIAN GAME.
(Continued from page 1.)
for holding. Schraeder punts 22 yds.
from’ 8-yd. line and Balenti, who
__c_aught the__ ball., retti~~~&...~..
Thorpe gets 18 yds. Payne makes
8, Balenti and Hendricks gain 8, and
3 yds. respectively on line bucks.
Payne makes 7 yds. Ball on Den-
ver’s 8-yd’ line. Ruff tackles T$orpe
for a l-y&. loss. Hendricks makes
3 yds. on Thorpe’s punt. Ball on
Denver’s 5-yd. line. Hanser trys a
Princeton, but the ball falls short.
Brussell caught ball on Denver’s 5-
yd. line. Schraeder punts 40 yds. to
Balenti. Balenti returns 12 yds.
with ball on Denver’s 4$yd. line.
_
A forward pass is caught by Brus-
sell and it is Denver’s ball. Schrae-
der immediately punts to Balenti 45
yds. but Indians return 5 yds.
Thorpe makes 10 yds; on fake punt.
Hendricks cross-bucks for 5 yds. and
Payne hits center for 1 yd. The
ball is on Denver’s 53-yd line.

Thorpe punts to Brussell, who re-
turns 7 yds. Volk was called on for
a cross-buck, but was thrown for a
2-yd. loss. Schraeder punts from
Denver’s 35-yd line to the Indians’
5%yd. line. Thorpe gets 9 yds. on a
cross-buck. Payne hits center for 3
yds. Hendricks wriggles through
Bennett for 10 yds. Winnie takes.
HendricksI _Jlace at_right tackle. ._
Ball is Indians on Denver’s 40-yd.
line. .Payne hit3 center for 3 yds.
Winnnie gets 1 yd. on a cross-buck.
Payne again tears off a center play
for 4 yds., and Little OldMan gets 3
yds. but fumbles and it is Denver’s
ball on their 29-yd. line. Brussell lost
5 yds. on an attempted forward pass,
and Schraeder punts 35 yds. to Ba-
lenti who brings the ball back 20 yds.

Wingenger intercepted a forward pass and it is Denver’s ball on their 50-yd: line. Volk failed at right end. Brussel forward  passes to Hutsell at 20-yds. Schraeder hits center for 4 yds. Brussel again tried a for- ward pass, but the ball went wide and  Denver loses 15 yds. being on their 40-yd. line. Endnfgamw -- Carlisle 8, Denver 4.

DENVER. POSITION: CARLISLE.
Russ ..___. __._ I.e. .._ Little OldMan
Bennett.... __.. ..l.t . . . . Wauseka
Miner .._._ -1% . .__ Afraid-of-a-bear
Wingenger .._ Center .._ Barrel1
Pruper _____. .._ ..r.g. .._ Lyon
Lieber _........... r.t. . . . . . Little Boy ’
Huslizell_...__ ..r.e. ___ Hauser
Brussell . . . . .._ q.b. . .._.. Balenti
Volk . . ..__....______._._ 1.h.b. ___...... Thorpe
Schraeder ..__ .____ f.b ___._._. .Payne
Crewley ._.._. r.h.b . ..__ ~._ Hendrick8

The Carlisle Indians are by far the greatest football teafn that any Ne- _ braska eleven ever faced, and their  r%markabKGctory overthe Corn-huskers yesterday was fairly won and justly deserved. Probably the score on the Indians’ side was a little too high to be representative of the rel- ative strength of the- two- teams, but there is no doubt that the Car-
lislers were entitled to the victory by a wide margin.

It is nothingto the discredit of the Nebraska players to have been de- feated by the wonderful machine of Coacli WarnGr’s. The visitors have one of the best elevens in the country -one superior to anything in the west and the equal of Pennsylvania or
the best of th; east. They have been trained in the most successful plays of the east, where the football played is the greatest in the world. They pltiyed the football of the east agaipst Nebraska, and as usual, when the west and east meet on the
gridiron the latter ti-iumphed.

Nebraska started the game in bril- liant style by making the first touch- -@vn. But when the Carlisle ma- chine opened up in the next ten min- utes after this touchdown was made it was obvious *hat the result would be. There was no stopping the red- _ - -~ 7iGrK Nebraska cod1.d not do <t,--Gor would it have been possible for any other western eleven. The Indians w&-e defeated by Minnesota, but it was at a time when they were crippled and could not play fast football. Yesterday the Carlislers ‘were in tip tip form and Nebraska was an easy victim for them. Their speed, vari- ety of attack, interference and for- ward passes were unlike anything ever seen on a Nebraska field before and they bewildered and dazed the Cornhuskers. After the first five minutes of play Nebraska never had a look in’for a victory.

The Cornhuskers, however, played a good game in nearl-y every respect. But when eyerything is considered- it-was not a bad game, and Nebras- ka’s players’ have no right to feel ashamed of themselves. They played good ball this fall and won a great
reputation for their own and for the state university. The experience of the Carlisle game will be of immense value to the coach and players who return to the gridiron work next fall.

A (3RBAT POE. The showing of the Indian team in yesterday’s contest gave the specta- tors a chance to witness an exhibi-
tion of football that was in many re- spects almost marvelous. Nothing has ever been seen in L&Gin to com- pare with the wonderful iilterference put up by the Carlisle players and in other departments of the game they were almost as perfect. On end runs and iti running Lack punts-&e line of interference put up by the Aborigi- nes was well nigh impenetrable aad sometimes as many as five or six Cornhusker tacklers would be bowled over before’ the runner could be downed. Nebraska’s ends and backs were successfully blocked repeatedly, allowing the redskin runners to make great gains and only occasionally did
the Cornhuskers brace and put up an impregnadle defense.-The Lincoln Nebraskan, Lincoln, Nebraska, Dec-
ember 3. s
December 11, 1908 ARROW



Samuel McLean, ‘09, was the speaker for the afternoon division on Monday. His subject was “Abraham Lincoln. ”

February 19, 1909 ARROW



Sam McLean has been at a hospital in Philadelphia receiving special treatment for an injury he received last week to his knee.

March 5, 1909 ARROW



HISTORY OF-THE CLASS-OF 1909.
:
Four years ago in the Freshman rpom we organized as a class, adopt- _gd the+&+et~&+~~&io~~~“laws- which have governed us in our class meetings; chose our’ motto ‘<On- ward,’ ’ our class colors, Orange and White and our class song which was .composed by Charles Kennedy. The tune is taken from the march “Our Di- ~~~ rector. ” &The purpose of the organ- ization was to-stimulate and maintain class enthusiasm, to exercise - and improve ourselves in public speaking
and all literary work, and to provide for our general welfare. Like all other literary organizations, officers were elected. At present they are as follows: President, Michael Bal- enti; vice-president, Samuel McLean; . secretary, Josephine  Gates;.reporter, Alonzo Brown; critic, Olga Reinkin. Our class meetings are held- on the first Thursday of each month. The
program consists of music, debate, _ a,. recitations, declamations, essays, orations and so forth, Elections are heid in Ma&h and September. The following tribes are represent- ed: Alaskan, Assiniboiiie; Cayuga, Cherokee, Cheyenne, Chippewa, Gros
Ventrr, Hyda,. Lummi, Mashpee, Mohawk, Oneida,. Pueblo, Sac and Fox, Seneca, Sioux, and Stockbridge. On each Arbor Day we have plant- ed a tree, three of which are quite thrifty, and we hope in time will ma- terially’ help to beautify the grounds. - ~. i __T&-m-rtny-- picnic’ pafii$; -r@cepZm tions and other amusements will stand out prominently in our mem-
orie? of the happy days at Carlisle. We have been known as the mat- rimonial class, two of our teachers an-cl several of our ex-classmates _having -fallen .victims ? to _-Cup%s darts. Barmony is essential in the make- up of a good c!ass. :We.can truth,.- fully say the members have never had any ill feeling toward one an- ot‘her. Good wi!l and loyalty have invariably prevailed among us.
_-
1909 seemed far in the distant future, but it is here and those four long years of hard study will be among the sweetest memories of our -1ives.~ l‘o-- us fear-years BgO is onlj; _ as yesterday. We are ready to go out into the world to fight qur own battles arid to face our fortune as it comes. When we organized we were fifty strong. From time to time during these
years, many of our classmates have left us. Not because they wanted to leave, but duty called them to more active labor.- Many of them are in the Indian Service working among their o;Nn people. Some are empl.oy- ed by the gb<ernment. Others are living on their smgll farms, earning their living by honest labor. We re- gret they are not with us at the finish. The good received from this school cann’ot b@ overestimated. _ ._
?-+ ~
*+*+*+*+*+*+*+*+**+
CARLISLE INDIAN SCHOOL CLASS OF GRADUATES, 1909.
'PERSONNEL OF THE CLASS: Michael Balenti, Llakw: Alonzo Brown, Wagrmwaker: Thomas Saul. 13r’nfer; Georre Gardner, Bkwkmitl~;
Charles Hill. 3bhmze~. Mason and Bricklawr; Orlando Johnson, Tailur; Samuel McLean. Hncksmith; .Charles Mitchell, ~ogrmmaker; Alonzo
Patton. EIwtriml Wirer; Patrick Verne);. fiiuto-: John White, I+i~lw: William Weeks. &Ew Work: Robert Davenport. Pri~Lfer; Cecelia
Baronovitch, Nwwzal and Hwtsekeeping; Savannah Beck. Tmi)led Nurse; Georgia Bennett, S’cwiup avd Housekrepixg; Irene Brown, _Vm-m&
crud Housrkeeping; Martha Day. Nornlnl crttd Housekeeping; Margaret Delorimiere. Sewing awd Hoztsekhping; Josephine Gates, .Ceu*itl,q nptd
Housekeeving; Elmira Jerome. ofice Work nrzd HozrsekeelJizzg; Helen Lane, Ofiw H’ork; Marie Lewis, Ilousrliw~~i~zg; Myrtle Peters, &w;~~g
axd Hcmsekw~~i~?g; Olga Reinken. No~mu1 trud tfollsc,l~(,rl,i?lg; Elizabeth Webster. Selcvrtg and Hor~selxc~~i~~g.
*+*+*+*+*+*+*+*+**+
Weeks.- How about the other North Dakota classmates?
Olga.---When we were changing cars at Bismarck we saw a tall well . dressed man eyeing us intently. Instantly our thoughts went back to our classmate Samuel McLean. He is the owner ofa store and ‘engaged in selling Indian Curios. He also attends to his ranch nearby. He told us that Josephine Gates is a stenographer for the Governor of North .Dakota. She has the reputation of being one of the best in the state, and that George Gardner is a pro@nent farmerin that state and -is no longer doing his own cooking.
*+*+*+*+*+*+*+*+**+
Committees For Senior Arrow.

The students responsible for the matter in this issue of THE ARROW are: ‘T‘o collect and arrange for essays: Josephine Gates, Elmira Jerome, Charles Mitchell. Printing:Robert Davenport. Patrick Verney. John White. Historians: Savannah Beck. Robert Davenport; Reuben Charles. Prophets: Olga Reinkin. Irene Brown, William Weeks. Athletics: George Gardner, Helen Lane, Georgia Bennett. Trades and Occupations: Elizabeth Webster. Charles Hill, Martha Day. Valedictory: Michael Balenti, Alonzo Patton, Orlando Johnson. Quotations: Marie Lewis, -Myrtle Peters. Anecdotes: Margaret Delorimiere. Alonzo Brown, Samuel McLean. Music: Cecilia Baronovitch, John White. Current Items: Entire Class. Colors and Mottoes. School Colors-Red and Gold. Class Colors: Seniors, Orange and  White; Juniors: Garnet and Gray; Sophomores. Lavender and White; Freshmen, Light Blue and Tan. Class Mottoes: Seniors, Onward; Juniors, Reliance; Sophomores, Truth Conquers; Freshmen, Loyalty.
*+*+*+*+*+*+*+*+**+
SCHOOL ATHLFTICS.

Both boys and girls of Class 1909 are well represented in athletics. A track team and a girls’ and boys’ basketball team were organized in the Freshman year.
Among prominent football players are Michael Balenti, who is one of the star quarter-backs in the country George Gardner and Samuel McLean. Balenti and Gardner played football’in the third team. while Sophomores, but as a result of faithful practice, are now among the champion players of the ‘Varsity. Samuel McLean joined the team as a Junior. Being a typical giant he was an expert from the first. Michael Balenti is at present captain of the,baueball team for the second year. The ‘09 boys are noted as fine basket ball players. Each year has brought many victories. The team includes Captain Michael Balenti, Reuben Charles, George Gardner, Earl Doxtator, Alonzo Brown and Orlando Johnson.
In track sports, Charles Mitchell holds the school record in pole vaulting, 11 ft., and Reuben Charles 10 ft.9 inches. Samuel McLean and Geo Gardner have made records in hammer throwing. While Sophomores and Juniors the girls’basket ball team was very successful, b!rt in the Senior year having lost orrr most ‘experienced players all effortsto organize were abandoned. “THE duty of every man is to do his best.”
*+*+*+*+*+*+*+*+**+
Among the boys Charles Mitchell made a good reputation last summer as a carriage builder at Langhorne, Pa. John White, William Weeks, Earl Doxtator, Robert Davenport and Patrick Verney have made excellent printers’ apprentices. Alonzo Patton made considerable headway at the Carlisle Axle Works and as an electrician. Orlando Johnson represents the tailor shop, Michael Balenti the bakery, Alonzo Brown and Reuben Charles have done well in the Indian. art department, Samuel McLean and George Gardner are well trained blacksmiths.
*+*+*+*+*+*+*+*+**+

April 9, 1909 ARROW



Michael Balen ti, Geoge Gardner, Orlando Johnson, Samuel McLean and Charles Mitchell are now regular students in the bookkeeping section of the Business Department.

April 16, 1909 ARROW



.GBNBRAL SCHOOL NEWS..
Fred Pappan, who returned here last week from his home, is now practising hard for the cross country run, which will be held next month. Rachael Penny, who left here last year, is now attending the Lapwai, Idaho, high school, where she is considered one of the brightest scholars. She intends finishing her studies. in other doings as well. Michael Balenti writes for both the ARROW and The Indian Craftsman from Calumet, Oklahoma. Samuel Mclean is at his home in Wood, South Dakota, and asks to have the ARROW forwarded there. He says in his letter: “I am at present at home helping my father with his work. I am also having quite a nice time hunting occasionally, for game is .very plentiful out here. ” THE ARROW is always glad to get news items about graduates and former students, They are especially welcome when they tell of the success and progress of our Carlisle pupils,who are making their own way in the world.

October 22, 1909 ARROW


 Carlisle’s Great Football
Philadelphia Public Ledger
many respects the
Carlisle Indian foot-
ball teams have been
the most remark-
able ever developed
in America. Cer-
tainly they been
very popular as a public attraction.
With no powerful alumni, no public par-
tisans, practically friendless, thousands
every year eagerly pay admission to see
them play the great college sport, no
matter where they may appear. Seem-
ingly, it is the novelty of Indians en-
gaged in the sport that serves as the
magnet to attract. But Carlisle plays
good football. Under Glenn S. War-
ner’s skillful coaching the Indians were
the first to show the possibilities of the
new game, and were far in advance of
all the other big college elevens in
methods permitted under the revised
code.
Almost from the establishing of the
game in 1893 at the Government
school here the Indians have shown
themselves adepts in the sport, and not
only strong, but remarkable elevens
hh
ave been developed. At one time in
t eir history the Indians enjoyed the
unique record of having played all the
big college teams in the East in one
year-a gigantic task, and one which
no other team would hazard. Carlisle
always has proved a worthy foe for
the best football product that any of the
other colleges can develop. Many
Record:
but it has been due to his instruction
that the Indians have proven so adept
in the sport and developed such remark-
able elevens. Warner is well remem-
bered as a great player-ne of the
best of his day; in fact, he had no su-
perior as a guard when .he was playing
on the Cornell eleven in 1891, 1892,
1893 and 1894. He stands out as the
best guard ever produced by the Itha-
can institution. It has been a debated
question whether his brother, William,
was his equal in all-round ability.
Both were powerful men, towers of
strength on the defensive and irresist-
ible in carrying the ball. Glenn
captained the Cornell eleven in 1894,
while his brother led the Ithacan
eleven almost ten years later, in 1903.
Both played left guard, and will ever
be remembered as Cornell’s greatest
guards.
After being graduated Mr. Warner
coached successfully at the University
of Georgia for two years, 1895 and
1896. He was then called to take
charge of the football forces at Cornell,
where he remained for two years.
1897 and 1898. He was very suc-
cessful in these two years, but left Ithaca
to become director of athletics at the
Carlisle Government School. From
1899 to 1904, he remained at Carlisle
anddeveloped some exceptionally strong
elevens. His success with the Indians
led Cornell to ask him again to assume
control of the football eleven at the
times the Indians have triumphed over , Ithacan University. For three years,
the best elevens in America, not only
in the East, but in the West and South.
They ever have exhibited a skill and
knowledge of the game sufficient to
cope successfully with the best that the
white man can produce.
GlennS. Warner, Cornell, ‘94, has
been the principal factor in developing
football at Carlisle. Mr. Warner was
not iinstrumental in establishing the
game at the Government school here,
1904,1905 and 1906, he was supreme
at Cornell, and his coaching had the
effect of placing”footbal1 on a sounder
basis and developing a more distinct
system than had ever been obtained at
his alma mater.
In these three years he brought or-
der out of chaos and gave Cornell bet-
ter football teams than the college had
had for years, and when he severed his
connection at Cornell he left something
========================================
10
material to show for his efforts. War-
ner left Cornell because of graduate.
interference, a trouble that is said
to be the basis of her failure to com-
pete successfully with other big uni-
versities on the gridiron. With a man
of Warner’s executive force and coach-
ing ability, Cornell would stand higher
in the football world today than she
does. Mr. Warner returned to Carlisle
in 1907, and is there today, a recogniz-
ed authority on the game and one of
the most successful coaches in America.
Football was first played by the In-
dians at Carlisle in the early 90’s
among themselves. In 1891 and 1892
there was a schedule arranged for class
or school competition, and in these
games, without any instruction, the
lndians played the game crudely, but
showed conspicuous evidence that with
teaching they could rival white boys in
its skillful exposition. In 1893 the In-
dians played a game with Dickinson
College and one of the players was so
unfortunate as to break his leg. Gener-
al Pratt, who was then in authority at
the school, immediately ordered all
games canceled, and there was no
more football that year. In 1894 the
games among the departments were
again resumed, but it was not until
1895 that Carlisle played its first im-
portant games.
Vance McCormick, captain of the
Yale eleven of 1892 and a. resident of
Harrisburg, was induced to give the In-
dians some football instruction, and he
soon perceived the possibilities of devel-
oping a strong team from the material.
Mr. McCormick coached the Indians
in 1895, and in that year they played
their first games away from home.
Through Mr. McCormick’s influence
Carlisle was placed in the Yale sched-
ule, and every succeeding year has
found the Indians an attraction on one
of the big college elevens’ schedule.
Carlisle also played its first game with
Penn in 1895. couragement found in songs and cheers
The Indians played a strong and
often winning game against the big
elevens almost from the start. In
1896 McCormick was assisted in the
coaching by Billy Bull, Yale’s most
famous drop kicker. It was under Bull’s
coaching that Metoxen developed in-
to one of the most famous and expert
drop kickers the game has ever pro-
duced. Metoxen had not a rival in
the specialty of dropping goals from
the field in his day, and every fol-
lower of football well remembers his
feats in this line. So persistent was
Metoxen in his kicking of drop goals
that he practiced during the winter in
the gymnasium and at every opportu-
nity out of doors. Metoxen was a
fair punter and an average halfback,
but his fame rests on his skill as a drop
kicker.
In 1898 Hall the former Yale end
coached Carlisle, and in the following
year Warner took charge of the team.
Warner leaving in 1904, the Indians
were coached that year by Rogers and
Bemus Pierce, two graduates. In 1905,
George Woodruff, Ralph Kinney, a
former Yale tackle, and Pierce were
the coaches. Carl Flanders, a great
Yale guard, Pierce and Hudson con-
stituted the coaching force in 1906.
Mr. Warner went back to Carlisle in
1907, and has coached the team up to
the present time with more success
than any of the other men.
The Indians have played Penn-
sylvania continuously since 1895.
-Having met the Quakers more than
any of the other big elevens, the Indians
have made their best record against
the Red and Blue. There is another
reason for Carlisle’s success against
Pennsylvania. The game at Phila-
delphia is the only contest at which
the Indians are favored with the rxor-
al support of a partisan crowd. An-
nually the entire student body is tran-
ported to Philadelphia, and in the en- _ . _ _
===================================
the Indians have been inspired as in
no other game on their schedule.
Fifteen hundred cheering boys and
girls, in addition to their band, have
been a great factor in the Indians win-
ning five and tying one out of the 11
games with Penn in as many years.
Imagine Pennsylvania, Princeton, Har-
vard or Yale, or in fact, any college,
playing a football game without the
presence of a large body of alumni and
students. But this is the condition
under which Carlisle plays all its games
away from home, save that in Phila-
delphia. r
Carlisle played Harvard continuous-
ly from 1896 to 1908. While the
Indians fought many close battles with
the Crimson they never succeeded in
winning at Cambridge but once. In
1907 they defeated Harvard 23 to 15.
Carlisle’s last game with Yale was in
1900, while Princeton has been on the
Indian schedule at intervals for a long
time. The last time the Tigers met
Carlisle was in New York in 1907.
The first time that Carlisle defeated
Pennsylvania was in 1899, when the
Quakers were humbled by the score
of 16 to 5. The Indians had one of
\ the best elevens in their history that
year. After Columbia had defeated
Yale in 1899, the Indians overwhelm-
ed the New Yorkers by a score of 45
to 0. In the game with Columbia
Warner first introduced the method
of the halfbacks crouching close to the
ground before the ball was snapped.
Prior to this halfbacks had invariably
taken a stooping position, with their
hands resting on their knees. Mr.
Warner first discerned the advantage
of getting as low as possible before
taking the ball for a run, and after he
had introduced and employed this
method of starting the backs, every
college in the country imitated it, and
today no other system is taught. Mr.
Warner does not claim to be the first
coach who introduced the goal from
field from placement, but he is gener- ’
ally credited with having first used the
innovation of having the quarterback
receive the ball from the centre and
placing it in a position for the kicker
to try for a goal from field.
Carlisle has developed some wonder-
ful players and remarkable elevens.
Every year one or more Indians stand
out conspicuously as peers in their po-
sitions, and many experts select Carlisle
players for their All-America eleven.
Among the best teams that ever repre-
sented Carlisle may be mentioned that
of 1899, which was by far the best up
to that time; those of 1902 and ‘03,
and later the elevens of 1906 and ‘07.
The team of 1907 was probably the
greatest ever developed at Carlisle. It
was strong in every department. It
demonstrated its prowess by defeating
Pennsylvania, 26 to 6, and later humili-
ated Harvard by a score of 23 to 15.
On this eleven Exendine and Gardner
played ends; Wauseka and Lubo, tack-
les; Aiken and Afraid of a Bear, guards,
and Little Boy centre. Back of the
line Mount Pleasant was at quarter;
Payne and Hendricks, halfbacks, and
Hauser, fullback. Mount Pleasant
was and is still a great punting and
drop-kicking quarterback, in addition
to being a fine catcher of punts and
fierce defensive player. He is now
playing his last year of football at Dick-
inson. Payne, Hendricks and Hauser
formed an invincible backfield, all being
fast and heavy. Exendine was the
most wonderful end of the year,, his
playing being phenomenal all season.
There is no question that he was the
greatest end ever produced at Carlisle.
This was the team that first showed to
the public the possibilities of the re-
formed game, Warner having been
exactly one year in advance of any other
coach in his grasping of plays under the
new rules,
Some of the great players that rep-
resented Carlisle in former years were
===============================
the two Pierces, Hawley and Bemus,
the latter a guard andthe former a tackle;
Hudson, Libby, Mount Pleasant and
Johnson, quaterbacks; Rogers and Ex-
endine, ends; Dillon, Lone Wolf and
Little Boy, centers; Wheelock and
Wauseka, tackles; Seneca, Miller,
Hendricks and Thorpe, halfbacks, and
Metoxen, Williams and Hauser, full-
backs. Two of these men, Johnson
and Seneca, were selected by Walter
Camp as members of All-America
elevens. Johnson was the greatest
quarterback who ever played on an
Indian eleven. He was quick as
lightning, a wonder in a broken field,
sure in catching a punt and a remark-
able defensive player. After graduation
from Carlisle he went west and played
two years on a college team, where he
increased his reputation as a remark-
able quarterback. Johnson is now
practising dentistry in Porto Rico. He
married a graduate of Carlisle, and
she is engaged in educational work on
the island.
Mount Pleasant and Libby, a broth-
er of the present captain and quarter-
back, were also great quarters, but not
the phenomenal players that Johnson
was. The Pierce brothers are well
remembered as famous players. Gi-
ants in physique, they were superior
defensive players, and also carried the
ball for unusual distances when it was
permissible to draw a man from the
line and use him as a running back.
Wheelock played at the same time,
and was another powerful man. Car-
lisle never had three better forwards
than these men. Rogers and Exen-
dine stand out as Carlisle’s great ends.
It is difficult to say which was the
better man, as they played two different
styles of game-Rogers when mass
plays were allowed and Exendine when
the open game was featured. Probably
the latter distinguished himself more
by reason that the open game favors
brilliant end work more than the old
game did. Rogers entered the Uni-
versity of Minnesota after leaving Car-
lisle and played there three years, cap-
taining the team in his last year and
being twice selected as All-Western
end. Wauseka, now playing tackle,
stands with Wheelock and Hawley
Pierce as the best tackles Carlisle ever
developed.
Seneca, Hendricks and Thorpe were
great halfbacks. Seneca was a fast
running back, full of fire and when
not carrying the ball for good distances
was always interfering for the runner.
He was also a great defensive man.
Coach Warner considers Thorpe one
of the greatest football players he ever
saw. He was a natural born player,
fast, powerful and aggressive. He
played his first football in 1908, and
while still a ward of the government
and eligible to play this year, he has
returned to his tribal lands in the west.
He is an exceptional all-round athlete,
being a splendid baseball player and a
good track athlete. Probably Carlisle
never had a better fullback than Hauser
who is playing the position now. He
is a catapult in line plunging, a strong
interferer and defensive player and a
remarkable goal kicker from place-
ment. In the latter specialty he is the
best the Indians have ever developed.
Mendacious newspaper writers have
grossly misrepresented Carlisle in two
respects. It has been printed broad-
cast over the country that the football
eleven is first recruited from available
material in the western reservations and
then the eligible players to select the
team from at the school are taken from
a list of 2000 students. Nothing is
farther from the truth. In the first
place, Superintendent Friedman, Coach
Warner, nor any other person has the
slightest influence in bringing Indians
to Carlisle. They are sent here by
Government agents and nothing is
known of their previous history until
they enter. The often printed stories
=============================
that Mr. Warner scouts the Western
Indian schools and reservations in the
summer for football material is
ridiculous and absurd. The Govem-
ment is the sole judge of the school to
which an Indian is to be sent. Boys are
received at the Carlisle school at ages
ranging from 14 to 21 years. No
boy under 17 years is available
for football playing, and after Mr.
Warner selects the boys who are of
playing age and suitable physique
he has a squad of about 200 can-
didates, There is no college $n the
country playing football as an inter-
collegiate sport which has less students
than the number from which Mr.
Warner selects his team. Yet Car-
lisle annually develops a team that is
far above the average college eleven
and is’ a strong competitor against the
bigger teams.
Another false statement that has
been generally printed and given ser-
ious credence is that the members of the
football squad are not amenable to the
usual regulations, restrictions and study
hours of the school. No favors are
, shown the members of the football
team except that they are given per-
mission to leave the school to play
games. All are subject to the same
hours as other students. The foot-
ball squad is not released from its
daily recitations or duties until 4 o’clock
when all are at liberty, and by the
time they dress and appear on the
field it is 4:30. From this time until
dark is the period each day that Mr.
Warner has to coach the men. When
it is considered that the material is very
limited, the time of practice shorter
than at many colleges and that the
Indians never enter Carlisle with a
prep. school knowledge of football, the
development of such strong elevens is
a standing recommendation of the
ability and patience of Coach Warner.
While this year’s team has not made
the record that some of the elevens of
I:
the past have made, it contains some
good material. The same men who
compose this year’s team will be a far
better combination next season. One
of the principal handicaps that Coach
Warner had to contend with this year
was the inexperience of the players.
Of the eleven varsity men only two
ever played on the team before this
year. These two are Wauseka, play-
ing his third year, and Hauser, who
was on the 1907 team, but was too ill
last year to take up the game. It is not
generally known that these two men
are fullblooded brothers, Wauseka re-
taining his Indian name, while his
brother chose to select an English sur-
name. Without a doubt they are the
stongest men on the eleven, both be-
ing powerful players and older than
their teammates. Perhaps there is not
a tackle playing today who is superior
to Wauseka, and the same may be said
of Hauser. Both are Cheyennes from
Oklahoma. Both are about 5 feet 9
inches and weigh close to 190 pounds.
Newashe and Kennerly are the
regular ends, with Powell as the first
substitute. Newashe made his name
famous by taking a forward pass from
Captain Libby in the Penn game and
running almost the length of the field
for a touchdown, Both have played
good football this year, considering
that they were practically green. They
have developed fast and will be much
better next year. Newas’he is also a
fine baseball player. Kennerly is faster
than Newashe and perhaps follows the
ball better. He is a Blackfoot from
Montana, weighs 155 pounds and is 5
feet 9 inches tall. Newashe is a
Cheyenne from Oklahoma, stands 5
feet 10 inches, and tips the scales at
175. Both are 19 years old. St. Ger-
main and Burd are the guards, the
former being the largest man on the
team. He stands 6 feet and weighs
198 pounds. He is a Chippewa from
Wisconsin. With more experience,
============================
Warner thinks he will prove a great
guard, as he is fast, aggressive and very
hard to break through. Burd is very
light for a guard, only weighing 175
pounds, but he has proven one of the
most alert men in the line, and always
follows the ball closely. He is a
Blackfoot from Montana. He is 21
years old.
At center, Jordon is a valuable man
in all around play. He is a hard man
to get through and snaps the ball
accurately for a punt or a run. He is
very active. He weighs 168 pounds,
is 5 feet 11 inches high and is 22 years
old. He is of the Chippewa tribe
from Minnesota. Garlow, a Tus-
carora from New York, plays tackle
as Wauseka’s mate, He is very
promising for the future, but has lack-
ed experience this year. He only
weighs 175 pounds, is 5 feet 9 inches
tall and is 21 years old.
Back of the line, Captain Libby
plays quarterback, does the punting,
and makes forward passes. It seems
strange that a captain never should
have played on the first team before,
but he was selected as leader last fall
when a substitute. He is very popu-
lar among the men and is a fine, all
around player. Libby is a Chippewa
from Minnesota, weighs 148 pounds,
the lightest man on the team, and is
5 feet 10 inches high. He is 20 years
old. Wheelock, an Oneida from
Wisconsin, has the distinction of being
the youngest man on the team. He
is only 18 years old, weighs but 152
pounds, and stands 5 feet 9 inches.
He is a fast running halfback, being
especially strong in a broken field.
The other regular halfback is LeClair,
a Shoshone from Wyoming, who is
also very light and young. He is 19
years old and weighs 158 pounds.
These two halfbacks are used almost
exclusively in end runs and open field
work, Hauserbeing the principal advan-
cer of the ball through the line. Le-
Clair is a fierce defensive man.
Of the substitutes, Powell, a Chero-
kee from North Dakota, is played at
end. Fast Bear, a Sioux from South
Dakota, is first substitute tackle, while
Wheeler, a Nez Perce from Idaho, is
the substitute center. Arcasa, a Chip-
pewa from Minnesota, is substitute
quarterback, while Thomas, an Onon-
daga from New York, and Yankee Joe,
a Sioux from South Dakota. are the
two substitute halfbacks.



April 1912 Vol. 4, No. 8, pp. 330-340.

Indians as Money Makers and
Students at Carlisle:
From New York Evening Sun.

IN THE past school year over one thousand students have been enrolled in the Carlisle Indian School at Carlisle, Pa., and of this number over one-half are now working as “outing” students on farms, in households and in shops and manufacturing establishments approved by the school authorities. Should these outing students earn as much this year as they did last year they will have over $25, 000 to their credit in the school bank.

At the school itself the Indian boys and girls by their work and study in the various shops and industries performed labor valued at $65,000 and more, the finished products aggregating $100,000. By reason of their earning power the young Indians produce nearly a dollar in return for every dollar appropriated for their school by the United States Government. The cost of each student last year was on an average of $170.

So successful have the methods of the Carlisle Indian School been that schools in various parts of the world are applying them in whole or in part. As an instance, the Bolivian Government will establish a school for the Incas modelled on Carlisle. The Indian students of Carlisle at the present time- are represented at the industrial exposition in Turin, Italy, by an extensive exhibit. It comprises work from all the departments.

The Carlisle Indian School was the first non-reservation school for Indians, beginning actual work in October, 1879 with eighty-two Sioux and forty-seven boys and girls from the Kiowa, Cheyenne and Pawnee tribes as the raw material. At the head of theinsti-tution is a superintendent, now M. Friedman, who is under Robert G. Valentine, Commissioner of Indian Affairs in the Department of the Interior. The applicants for admission to Carlisle must be at least one-fourth Indian and from 14 to 20 years old. A physician’s certificate must accompany every application, and special care is taken that no Indian boy or girl afflicted with tuberculosis, the dread enemy of the Indian race, be admitted to Carlisle.

In the classrooms the young Indians study and recite with such mottoes on the walls: “Blessed is he who has found his trade and gets busy,” “Try the pleasant way in your work to-day,” and “Donot spit on the floor; to do so may spread disease.” The students have their regular text book study, just as in any school, in addition to their industrial training. This includes carpentry, blacksmithing, carriage and wagon making, painting, plumbing and steam fitting, tailoring, harness making, shoemaking, plastering, bricklaying, masonry, tinsmithing, printing, photography, domestic science, housekeeping, sewing, horticulture, cattle and poultry raising and dairying. Theregre also courses in business training, music, physi-cal culture, nursing, Indian art and telegraphy.

Telegrapky Among Indian Students.

The course in telegraphy was added to the curriculum at Car-lisle last year, for it has been found that Indians are peculiarly fitted by nature to become excellent telegraph operators. Their keen sense of hearing and highly-trained sense of touch are their main qualifi-cations.

Most of the student telegraphers have a liking for. the work, and the superintendent ofla railroad in Pennsylvania, after having experimented with several graduates of Carlisle’s telegraph department, thinks Indian operators especially desirable because of their repose and lack of nervousness under the strain of work. In the West there is a-great demand for Indian telegraphers, since railroads find it difficult to keep white men at some of the isolated stations in the deserts and mountainous regions. A life that the white man finds lonely the Indian seems to have no objection to. Encouraging Native Indian Art and Folklore.

The Department of Native Indian Arts is the most distinctively Indian of Carlisle’s institutions. Those in charge of the depart-ment ares aiming to make out of a crude and primitive art something that will be of vital interest in art development and susceptible of useful application to the decorative arts of this country. Already the creations of students in the department have attracted attention, especially from artists. The rugs and blankets woven by students from designs made by themselves have met with a ready sale, and the crafts department has undertaken to sell Pueblo pottery, has-kets, Navajo art-squares, looms and blankets for the old Indians.

Beadwork and metal-work are being developed. Silversmithing received an impetus last year by the arrival of a number of Navajo boys at Carlisle. Of some of their work the ARROW had the fol-lowing to say: “The silversmiths have finished some very pretty bracelets and candlesticks. The designs on the bracelets are en-tirely ofiginal, and they show excellent taste as well as decided talent for designing. The candlesticks would ornament any mantel.”

At the head of the Department of Native Indian Art is a full-blooded Winnebago, Angel De Cora, whose own efforts secured her an education in various art schools of this country. Of Indian art she says: “Although at times I yearn to express myself in land-scape art, I feel that designing is the best channel in which to convey the native qualities of the Indian’s decorative talent. There is no doubt that the young Indian has a talent for pictorial art, and the Indian’s artistic conception is well worth recognition, and the school-trained Indian of Carlisle is developing it into possible use that it may become his contribution to American art.”

Special attention is being paid at Carlisle to the study of Indian folklore and the manners and customs of various tribes. The students are being encouraged to put into writing the historical and mythological information that has been imparted to them by the older members of their tribe, and the very best of them are being published in the twoschool papers, the ARROW and the RED MAN.

The “Outing” System.

All students at Carlisle are expected to spend at least one year under the “outing” system, which brings them into close personal contact with white persons in their homes and enables them to secure practical training in their chosen line of work. Special care is taken in placing both the boys and girls in desirable surroundings. An applicant for a student-a n d there were eight hundred more applicants than available students this year-must furnish references and give full information about the other members of the household, whether any use tobacco or liquor, what religious services are at-tended, the privileges the boy or gitl is to have, the nature of the work and remuneration proposed.

The “outing” student also has to fulfil certain conditions, as given in the following pledge for a boy or girl going on a farm: “I want to go out into the country. If you will send me I promise to obey my employer, to keep all the rules of the school. I will at-tend Sunday school and church regularly. I will not absent myself from my farm home without petmission of my employer, and will not loaf about stores or elsewhere evenings or Sundays, I will not make a practice of staying for meals when I visit my friends, I will not use tobacco or liquor in any form. I will not play cards nor gamble, and will save as much money as possible. If out for the winter, I will attend school regularly and will do my best to advance myself in my studies. I will bathe regularly, write my home letter every month, and do all that I can to please my em-ployer, improve myself and make the best use of the chance given me.”

The “outers” are visited twice a year by representives of Carlisle. Half of their wages are kept by the Carlisle authorities and given to the student when he finally quits the institution. One-fourth they may have to spend as their wages fall due, and the other fourth is saved for spending after their return to Carlisle. Both the employer and the Indian student have to send monthly reports to the Carlisle authorities.

Carlisle’s weekly paper, the ARROW, from time to time chronicles the doings of the “outers.” Following are some samples: “Harrison Smith has returned from the country looking prosper-ous and well-fed.”

“James Welch, who is working out on a poultry farm, has been given full charge of the entire flock, and we hope he will show his employer that he is capable of holding his job.” “The quacking of Joseph Anamikwan, the small boys’ ‘duck,’ will be missed very much since he has gone out into the country for the spring and summer.”

“Eunice Bartlett, who lives near Harrisburg, came in to spend the Christmas holidays. Some one asked her how she liked the school she is attending. She replied, ‘I like it fine, and the children don’t call me Indian, either.“’

Piizy as Well as Work at Carlisle.

But not everything at Carlisle is work. The students have time for the amusements that they enjoy-sports, music, literary societies, picnics, spreads, etc. The Indians have two bands, a man-dolin club and a glee club, for they seem to enjoy music almost as much as eating, which always furnishes untold pleasure at any gather-ing where refreshments are served.

At the end of two school years some of the Indian boys and girls at Carlisle have presented an opera called “The Captain of Plymouth,” with several “heavy” solo parts and choruses com-posed of soldiers, sailors, Indian men, squaws and Puritan men and maidens. A “white” musical critic had the following to say about one presentation:

“There really wasn’t much of an amateurish air about the per-formance at any stage of it, and the participants showed unusual talent and ability, especially those in special parts. Montreville Yuda as Miles Standish was very comical and proved himself a star. Carlysle Greenbrier, as Priscilla, performed well her part. She has a sweet soprano voice, not of great volume, but oflgood quality. “The audience appeared to be well pleased with the work of Emma Esanetuck as Katonka, the Indian Princess, and with that of John White as Elder Brewster, howbeit judging from the very loud and prolonged applause, everybody’s work was appreciated. The Indians’ war dance around Capt. Standish and his friend Eras-mus (Lewis Runnels) was very realistic-very.”

Football at Carlisle.

Although Carlisle has her track, lacrosse and basketball teams and a baseball team until the game was abolished last year because too many of the players were attracted to professional teams, it is the football team that has made the name Carlisle known through-out the country. Every year thousands see the Indians play, seem-ingly because they are Indians, but at the same time Carlisle’s foot-ball teams are the most remarkable developed in this country. From a small school without powerful alumni the Indian football players go out to battle on the gridiron before hostile crowds.

Only once a year is the team supported by the students of the school. That is at the annual game with the University of Penn-sylvania, when the entire student body is taken to Philadelphia to inspire the team for one game in the season with cheers and songs, as Harvard, Yale and-Princeton are supported every time they play. Hearing the Carlisle yell, “Minnewa Ka, Kah Wah We! Minnewa Ka, Kah Wah Wel Minnewa Ka, Kak Wah We! Carlisle! Carlisle! Carlisle!” may have something to do with the fact that the Indians have made their best record against Pennsylvania, which they have met on the gridrion every year since 1895.

The first time Carlisle won from Pennsylvania was in 1899, when the Indians made 16 points as against the Quakers’ 5. That same year Carlisle overwhelmed the Columbia University team by a score of 45 to 0, just after Columbia had defeated Yale. In ‘this game Coach Warner of the Indians first put to use the method of having the halfbacks ,crouch close to the ground before snapping the ball. Soon every college in the country adopted the system, and the old, slow, stooping position became a thing of the past.

From 1896 to 1908 Carlisle played Harvard continuously, but the Indians succeeded in winning only once, in 1907, by a score of 23 to 15, although many of the contests were close. Perhaps the story most often told at Carlisle in connection with the Harvard games is the famous run that Charles Dillon in 1903 made the length of the field in the Harvard stadium with the ball tucked under his jersey. Football was first played at Carlisle in 1891 and 1892, when schedules were arranged between classes. It was seen that the Indians with competent instruction would make worthy rivals for any college team in the country. Early in the season of 1893 the first team representing the Carlisle Indian School met Dickinson College. In this game the leg of an Indian player was broken, and the school authorities immediately ordered all games cancelled. Two years later the Indians played their first games away from the school.

Perhaps the most famous player that Carlisle produced during the first five years of football at the school was Metoxen, whom many football experts consider the most expert drop kicker de-veloped by the game in America. All the year round Metoxen was accustomed to practice drop kicking-in the gymnasium in winter time and out doors at every opportunity. Now he is a farmer, living on the Oneida reservation in Wisconsin. After leaving Car-iisle, Metoxen married one of the Indian girls who had attended school while he was there, as have so many of the famous Indian athletes.

The greatest ends who ever played for Carlisle were Exendine and Rogers. On both defensive and offensive Exendine was re-markably fast. After leaving Carlisle he attended Dickinson College, and #later became football coach at Otterbein University. Edward Rogers, a Chippewa Indian, was captain of the team in 1900. In 1904 he was graduated from the law department of the University of Minnesota, having worked his way through the university. He was captain of the Minnesota team the last of the three years that he played football there. While practicing law at Mahnomen, Minn., he was appointed judge of the Probate Court.

The greatest quarterback of any Carlisle eleven was Johnson, who one year was selectedforthe All-American team. He possessed remarkable qualities in passing the ball, catching punts, moving in a broken field and playing on the defensive. This Stockbridge Indi-an married a Carlisle girl and has a home in San Juan, Porto Rico, where he did a $4,000 business last year as practising dentist, “with profit to himself and relief to the natives.”

The largest and strongest man who was ever a member of a Carlisle team was the Seneca Indian Bemus Pierce. He captained the team in 1896 and later was one of Carlisle’s coaches. In recent years he has been living on his farm at Irving, in this State., but spend-ing several months in the fall coaching a college team.

The team of 1907 was probably Carlisle’s most wonderful eleven, for every position was filled by a remarkable player. This eleven defeated Harvard by a score of 23 to 15 and Pennsylvania, 26 to 6. The linemen were Exendine and Gardner, ends; Wauseka and Lubo, tackles; Aiken and , guards, and Little Boy, center. The backfield was an invincible combination, composed of Payne and Hendricks, halfbacks, and Hauser, fullback. Mt. Pleasant, at quarter, was noted for his punting, drop kicking, catching of punts and defensive playing. This team will go down in football history as having shown to the public, football coaches and other teams the possiblities of the reformed game.

Religous Life Among the Students.

Absolute religious freedom is allowed the students at Carlisle, but each student must affiliate with some church. The Roman Catholic church in the town of Carlisle arranges for the religious instruction of the Indian boys and girls who attend its services. Boys of Protestant belief either attend Sunday school in the town’s churches or with the girls in the school’s auditorium. Weekly meet-ings are held at the school by the pastors of the Methodist, Episco-pal and Presbyterian churches.

The school also has Y. M. C. A. and Y. W. C. A. organizations, and their leaders impress upon the students the opportunities for them in view of the fact that there are 11,000 pagan Indians in the State of California alone. The nature of the meetings is not exactly that implied by a typographical error in the ARROW, which mis-placed the “a” and “cl’ in “sacred:” “Harry Wheeler sang a scared song of his tribe in his native tongue at the Y. M. C. A. meeting last Sunday evening.”

Names of Carlisle Students.

Especially amusing to Americans are the names of some of the students at Carlisle. Many are enrolled with the very names that their parents gave them in accordance with tribal customs. In the horse line there are Clara Spottedhorse, Jesse Horse Eye and Guy Plenty Horse. The “bears” are especially common. Among them are Joe Loud Bear, Hugh Weasel Bear, Stella Bear and Black-bear. Among other animal names are Lucy Prettyweasel, Rufus Youngdeer, Elsie Rabbit and Katie Wolf. The names of two Car-lisle students whose marriage occurred last year were Willam White Bear and Jennie Two Elk. A Miss Ironshield also became the wife of John Elkface.

Names of a feather are Spring Chicken, John Feather, Morgan Crowsghost, William Owl and Julia Whitefeather. The parents of Sundown, David Redthunder and Charley Low Cloud may have been of a nature-loving disposition. One of the most prominent students at Carlisle is James Mumblehead, who has shown no indi-cation that he was suitably named. Bruce Goesback and John Runs-close have always found that they can walk along all right with each other. Other interesting names are Twohearts, Johnny John, St. Elmo Jim, Alpheus Chrisjohn, Rena Red Eye, Yankeejoe, Selina Twoguns, Pawnee Leggings and Willie Cornstalk.

Some of the students have adopted “white” names to replace their Indian ones. For instance, a Hoopa Indian who was par-ticularly fond of acting became Raymond Hitchcock. Another boasts the name of Joseph Cannon. One Indian boy became Will Shakespear, picking out the spelling that he preferred. A few re-tain pure Indian names: for example, Tewanima, Ettawageshik and Shasbowobosh. Because one of two brothers chose to retain his ‘Indian name, Wauseka, and the other bestowed the English surname,Hauser upon himself, the many who saw the Cheyenne brothers’play football and read of their superb tackling little realized that they were related.

Ninsfy Indian Tribes Represented at Carlisle.

By ,bringing together at Carlisle the most promising boys and girls of ninety Indian tribes, the United States Government is at-tempting in part to nationalize America’s primitive people. Al-though many of the tribes are hostile to each other because of traditional troubles or long-standing difficulties, the younger members at Carlisle seldom show any animosity toward each other. They are taught to look beyond their reservations and tribal traditions and to form lasting friendships. These teachings have often exceeded the expectations of teachers, for a comparatively large number of marriages occur among the graduates.

The largest number of students from any one tribe last year was 111 Senecas, sixty-nine boys and forty-two girls, while the Sioux took second place with sixty-seven boys and twenty-nine girls. One Porte Rican and two Filipinos attended the school last year. From Alaska there were nine Indians, six of them girls. Emma Esanetuck, one of these Alaskan girls was at Carlisle eleven years before she re-turned to her home at Point Barrow, said to be the northernmost town in Alaska.

Last spring nine Sioux chieftains who were in Washington seek-ing the settlement of land questions went to Carlisle to see the Sioux students. All of the chiefs wore citizen’s clothes but several bore such names as Killed Spotted Horse, High Eagle, White Swan and Bull Bear. The girls and boys of any one tribe are always glad to welcome any new arrivals from the home reservation, partly because of tribal feeling and partly on account of messages from their home people. Among the ninety tribes represented are the Mohawks, Tuscaroras, Seminoles, Tonawandas, Paiutes, Nooksaks, Miamis, Comanches, Creeks, Crows, and Arapahoes. What Carlisle Graduates Are Doing.

Of the 514 living graduates of the Carlisle Indian School only five are considered failures by the authorities of the school, who have attempted to keep in close touch with the graduates, all of whom are most loyal to their alma mater. Three hundred are successfully engaged in vocational activities away from the reserva-tion, for they have not been content to remain wards of the Govern-ment. In the United States Indian service are sixty graduates employed as clerks, teachers, disciplinarians, scouts and interpreters. Of the 142 female graduates who are married not one has “failure” written after her name in Carlisle records.

More than 4,000 Indian boys and girls have attended Carlisle ong enough to complete partial terms. Investigations in regard to 5,000 of them have shown that about 94 per cent are successfully earning their living, and for this Carlisle takes a part of the credit, For instance, Raymond Buffalo Meat, a Cheyenne Indian and form-er student, writes from Omega, Okla., that he owns his own home and also a barn. “I have been trying to do what is right, and am a member of the First Cheyenne Baptist Church, where I am clerk and my father a deacon. Sometimes I interpret for the mission-ary. I will also inform you of my work. I have fifty acres of corn; it is pretty good; and ten acres of cotton; it is also good.” Elsie Valley, who is a laundress at Washunga, Okla., says: “I am certainly thankful for what Carlisle has done for me; it certain-ly has taught me how to earn my clothes and bread and butter.” The ARROW holds up, as industrious boys, one who receives a repu-tation as a farmer because he captured the first prize at a county fair for cabbages, and another former student who earned over $130 in one month by car building, although only a short time out of the Carlisle carpenter shops. Another former student, Stephen Glori, is earning $29 a week in the mechanical department of a New York newspaper. Recently the success of Mrs. G. W. Pease, a former Carlisle student, in running a large ranch and caring for a fami-ly, has attracted a great deal of attention.

James B. Halftown, who attended Carlisle last year, recently wrote from his home in Tunesassa, N. Y., “I long to be at Carlisle with my old teammates at Lacrosse. I had bad luck this winter. Father and mother died, both inside of thirty days, and I have four little children to take care of. My grandmother stays with us to do the cooking, and I have to work. I am doing the best I can for them.”